Sunday, February 5, 2023

How Long The Hepatitis B Vaccine Last

Pneumonia Vaccine For Adults: How Long Does It Last

Ending hepatitis B with crucial birth dose vaccine

by Jeffrey Fontenot, MD

Time and again, older adults have been reminded of the importance of getting vaccinated for COVID-19, influenza and shingles. But theres another vaccine that shouldnt get lost in the shuffle the one that protects against lung-inflaming pneumonia.

The pneumococcal vaccine is not a seasonal shot, nor is it prescribed as often as the flu shot. It is, however, important to discuss the pneumonia shot with your doctor if you are over the age of 65 or if you have certain underlying conditions. With COVID-19 still hanging around, its a good idea to focus on lung health.

As with other vaccines, the one for pneumonia cant prevent all cases, but it can lower your chances of getting the disease and lessen its severity if you do come down with it.

For most older adults, the vaccine is administered in two doses that provides protection against different types of the infection. However, theres also a newer pneumonia vaccine that offers equal protection with just a single shot, the PCV20 vaccine. Currently, the CDC and its Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices are only recommending a single PCV20 vaccine. And at this time, research shows no boosters are needed after that. Like with everything in medicine, this may change, but at this time, it provides lifelong protection.

Pneumococcal pneumonia vaccines are available at many doctors offices, local pharmacies and at some local health departments.

The shots and their effectiveness

Side effects

Who Should Get Vaccinated

The Hepatitis B vaccine is typically administered in a sequence of 3-4 shots during a 6-month period.

  • Travelers to regions with moderate-to-high rates of Hepatitis B
  • People aged 19 59 with diabetes
  • Anyone who wishes to be protected from Hepatitis B virus infection

To proactively reach those at risk for Hepatitis B, vaccination is also recommended for people in or seeking treatment from the following:

  • Sexually transmitted disease treatment facilities
  • HIV testing and treatment facilities
  • Health care settings targeting services to men who have sex with men
  • Facilities providing drug-abuse treatment and prevention services
  • Correctional facilities
  • Health care settings targeting services to injection drug users
  • Chronic hemodialysis facilities and end-stage renal disease programs
  • Institutions and nonresidential day care facilities for developmentally disabled persons

Immunisation Against Hepatitis B For People At Risk

In Victoria free hepatitis B vaccine is provided for people who are at increased risk, including:

  • Men who have sex with men.
  • People living with HIV.
  • People living with hepatitis C.
  • People no longer in a custodial setting who commenced, but did not complete, a free vaccine course while in custody.
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.
  • People born in priority hepatitis B endemic countries who arrived in Australia in the last 10 years priority countries include China, Philippines, Malaysia, Vietnam, Afghanistan, Thailand, South Korea, Myanmar , Indonesia, Singapore, Hong Kong, Taiwan and Cambodia.
  • Vulnerable citizens people who have experienced hardship that prevented them from accessing the vaccine earlier. Vulnerable citizens are vaccinated based on an individual assessment by an immunisation provider.

Immunisation is also recommended, but not free, for people who are at increased risk including:

If you think you have been exposed to hepatitis B, see a doctor immediately. Your doctor can give you treatment that, in some instances, can greatly reduce your risk of infection with hepatitis B.

Remember that being immunised against hepatitis B does not protect you against HIV, hepatitis C or other diseases spread by blood or bodily fluids. It is important that you take precautions to make sure you are not exposed to these diseases.

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Who Should Get The Hepatitis A Vaccine

The CDC recommends that all children between ages 12 months and 23 months get this vaccine as well as for any infant aged 6 to 11 months who is traveling internationally.

The following people are also at risk for the disease and should be vaccinated:

  • Children and teens through age 18 who live in states or communities that have made this vaccination routine because of a high rate of disease
  • Men who have sex with men
  • Anyone who uses illegal drugs
  • People with chronic liver disease
  • Anyone treated with blood clotting drugs, such as people with hemophilia
  • People who work with HAV-infected primates or in HAV research laboratories.
  • Travelers to countries where hepatitis A is common. A good source to check is the CDCâs travelersâ health website, which you can search by the country youâre going to.
  • People adopting or close to a child adopted from a country where hepatitis A is common

You should not get the vaccine if youre allergic to any ingredients in it or if you had a severe allergic reaction to an earlier dose of it. Tell your doctor or pharmacist about any allergies you have.

If youre pregnant, let your doctor know. The safety of this vaccine for pregnant women is unknown, although the risk is considered to be very low.

Us Children And Adult Hepatitis B Vaccine Schedules

Hepatitis B Vaccine How Long Does It Last
*Please note that the first dose should be given as soon as possible. Additional doses require minimum time intervals between doses in order for the vaccine to be effective.

3-Dose Vaccine Series for Children and Adults

The hepatitis B vaccine is an injection that is generally given in the arm as a three-dose series on a 0, 1, and 6-month schedule. Alternative schedules may be considered, noting that a third dose at 6 months, meeting minimum intervals between doses, is needed for maximum, long-term protection. Completing the hepatitis B vaccine series, preferably beginning at birth, will ensure protection against hepatitis B, hepatitis delta and lower the lifetime risk of liver cancer. Greater than 90% of babies and up to 50% of young children who are not vaccinated and are infected with hepatitis B will have lifelong infection, which makes the birth dose essential to their protection.

There are four, 3-dose vaccine brands approved in the U.S.

  • PreHevbrioPreHevbrio is only approved for adults age 18 and over.

2-Dose Vaccine Series

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Emergency Hepatitis B Vaccination

If you have been exposed to the hepatitis B virus and have not been vaccinated before, you should get immediate medical advice, as you may benefit from having the hepatitis B vaccine.

In some situations, you may also need to have an injection of antibodies, called specific hepatitis B immunoglobulin , along with the hepatitis B vaccine.

HBIG should ideally be given within 48 hours, but you can still have it up to a week after exposure.

Is It Okay To Get An Extra Dose Of Hepatitis B Vaccine

Yes. Although extra doses of vaccine are not recommended, you can think of the extra dose as another chance for the immune system to see the hepatitis B virus. A vaccine is not the only time the immune system will see the virus or bacteria contained in it. People may be exposed to the virus or bacteria at school or the store or when visiting family or friends. An extra dose of vaccine is like one more exposure, except the difference is that the virus or bacteria in any vaccine has been made safe, so it wont make you ill.

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Who Should Get The Vaccine

The Hepatitis B vaccine is recommended for all infants and children aged between 0 and 18. In the case of infants, it is recommended to take the vaccine at birth, while still in hospital. In cases where the vaccine was omitted at birth, its important to complete the 3-shot series as soon as possible. Adolescents and adults who havent received the vaccine on time are also recommended to complete the vaccination as soon as they can.

Members of the following at-risk groups should take special care to get vaccinated: healthcare workers, people in treatment for another STD, the partners and household members of individuals with HIV/AIDS, prison inmates, intravenous drug users , sexually active people who are not in exclusive relationships, men who engage in sex with other men, residents and staff of homes and facilities that care for the developmentally challenged, and people with serious kidney diseases .

Some US populations have a substantially higher rate of HBV infections. This includes Pacific Islanders, Alaska Natives, as well as immigrants and refugees from endangered territories and countries. People who belong to these endangered groups are highly advised to take the vaccine.

Rare Side Effects After Immunisation

Hepatitis B Vaccine

There is a very rare risk of a serious allergic reaction to any vaccine. This is why you are advised to stay at the clinic or medical surgery for at least 15 minutes following immunisation, in case further treatment is required.

If you think your child may be having a serious allergic reaction and you are no longer at the clinic where they were immunised, take them immediately to your doctor or to the nearest hospital, or call 000 for an ambulance.

Another rare side effect is the hypotonic-hyporesponsive episode . If they are experiencing HHE, a baby may be:

This may occur from one to 48 hours following vaccination. The whole episode may last from a few minutes to 36 hours.

If you think your child may be having an HHE episode, take them immediately to your doctor or to the nearest hospital.

Follow-up of children with HHE shows no long-term neurological or other side effects.

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How Can I Contract Hepatitis A

You can contract the hepatitis A virus by eating food or drinking beverages that have been contaminated by human fecal waste.

Resort activities that may put you at risk for hepatitis A include:

Eating food handled by an infected worker who did not wash his/her hands properly after using the washroom

Eating raw or undercooked seafood and shellfish that lived in sewage-polluted water

Eating salads or produce rinsed in contaminated water

Drinking contaminated water or drinks with contaminated ice

Bathing, showering, or swimming in contaminated water

How Do I Know That I Am Protected Against Hepatitis B

If you have never been tested for hepatitis B, your doctor can arrange a blood test to check your hepatitis B status before you are given the vaccination course. The prescreening blood test will check you have not already had exposure to the hepatitis B virus.

If you have had a full course of hepatitis B vaccination in the past then there is a good chance that you are protected now. Also, if you have had hepatitis B before and cleared the infection you are immune to hepatitis B.

After vaccination, a post vaccination blood test is available to check that the vaccine has been effective. Your doctor can order this test for you. This blood test is not routinely recommended for children as the hepatitis B vaccine is highly effective.

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What Is In The Hepatitis B Vaccine

Vaccines are given by a course of three injections, usually as part of the 6-in-1 vaccine scheme.

Although there are different types of vaccines, they usually contain one of the proteins from the surface of the hepatitis B virus thats then inserted in to the genetic code into yeast cells which stops the risk of viral DNA getting into the final product.

They also contain small amounts of sodium chloride and aluminium, and can contain yeast and formaldehyde.

International Hepatitis B Vaccine Schedules

HEP B (Series of 3 shots)  Test Smartly Labs
*Please note that the first dose should be given as soon as possible. Additional doses require minimum time intervals between doses in order for the vaccine to be effective.

The hepatitis B vaccine is an injection that is generally given in the arm and as a three-dose series. The World Health Organization recommends a 0, 1, and 6-month vaccine schedule, though schedules may vary based on a countrys national immunization program. Completing the hepatitis B vaccine series, preferably beginning at birth, will ensure protection against hepatitis B, hepatitis delta and lower the lifetime risk of liver cancer. Greater than 90% of babies and up to 50% of young children who are not vaccinated and are infected with hepatitis B will have lifelong infection, which makes the birth dose essential to their protection. Please note that the vaccine brand name, manufacturer and associated schedules for adults, children and infants may be unique to different countries, though there is a list of WHO prequalified vaccines.

3-Dose Vaccine Series for Infants

The World Health Organization recommends all infants receive the first dose of the hepatitis B vaccine within 24 hours of birth and to complete the vaccine series with additional shots at 1 month and 6 months of age. Beginning the hepatitis B vaccine at birth will ensure protection against hepatitis B for life.

3-Dose Vaccine Series for Children and Adults

4-Dose Combination Vaccine Series for Infants

Additional Resource Links:

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Other Important Hepatitis A Vaccine Facts

People who are on hemodialysis and those with AIDS shouldnt worry its safe for them to get vaccinated since its an inactivated vaccine. Whats more, there is no harm in receiving additional shots if a person lost his medical history.

In some cases, prevaccination testing may apply. This is usually done to keep the vaccination cost down and may include people of certain ethnic groups and those who live in areas with high hep A incidence rate. The same rule applies to intravenous drug users.

The protection usually begins two to four weeks after the first shot. In light of the long incubation period of the hepatitis A virus, the protection may start right away.

Hep A isnt treated with any antivirals and the liver has a remarkable ability to self-regenerate. Doctors usually prescribe sufficient hydration, plenty of rest, and proper nutrition, though some people might need to be hospitalized for additional medical care.

For Adults At High Risk Of Exposure

Adults who have not received the hepatitis B vaccine series should be immunized when they have an increased risk of exposure. Job, travel, health condition, or lifestyle all may increase a person’s risk of contracting hepatitis B.

People who live or work where there is risk of exposure include:

  • Health care and public safety workers who are likely to be exposed to blood or blood products.
  • Clients and staff of institutions or residential settings with known or potential HBV carriers.
  • People planning extended travel to China, Southeast Asia, Africa, and other areas where hepatitis B infection is high.

People who have health conditions that put them at high risk for exposure or a severe infection include:

  • People who have a severe kidney disease that requires them to have their blood filtered through a machine .
  • People who have chronic liver disease.
  • People who have hemophilia and other conditions in which they need to have blood products on an ongoing basis.
  • People who had a stem cell transplant.

People whose lifestyle puts them at high risk for exposure include:

  • People who inject illegal drugs.
  • Men who have sex with men.
  • People who have had more than one sex partner in the past 6 months or who have a history of sexually transmitted infection.
  • Household contacts and sex partners of hepatitis B carriers.
  • Prison inmates.

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Do The Benefits Of The Hepatitis B Vaccine Outweigh Its Risks

Every year in the United States about 2,000 people die following an overwhelming hepatitis B virus infection. In addition, every year about 22,000 people are infected with hepatitis B. Some of them will remain chronically infected, putting them at high risk of the long-term consequences of hepatitis B virus infection: cirrhosis and liver cancer. In fact, with the exception of influenza and COVID-19 viruses, hepatitis B virus causes more severe disease and death in the United States than any other vaccine-preventable disease. On the other hand, the hepatitis B vaccine is an extremely rare cause of a severe allergic reaction called anaphylaxis. To date, no one has died from this reaction, but it is theoretically possible that this could occur.

Because hepatitis B virus is a common cause of severe disease and death in the United States, and because the hepatitis B vaccine does not cause permanent damage or death, the benefits of the hepatitis B vaccine clearly outweigh its risks.

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I Am A Healthcare Worker Who Did Not Develop Hepatitis B Antibodies After Immunization What Should I Do

Hepatitis A Vaccine Extension

Two versions of hepatitis B vaccine are available. One, called Heplisav-B, contains a novel adjuvant that was not present in previous versions used by adults . Some people did not respond to the older version hepatitis B vaccine. In fact, in a group of adults younger than 40 years of age who received two doses of the older version vaccine 75 of 100 were protected. Following the third dose, this number increased to 90 of 100. However, people older than 40 years of age were less likely to respond to the vaccine with increasing age. On the other hand, 90 to 100 of 100 adults 18 years of age and older respond to Heplisav-B, which was approved for use in 2018.

About 5-10 of every 100 children and adults younger than 40 years of age do not respond to the third dose of the hepatitis B vaccine. Some of these people will be recommended to get vaccinated again. About 5 of 100 people will still not respond after getting all recommended doses of both series. Note that children younger than 18 years of age cannot get Heplisav-B.

If the people who do not respond to vaccination are determined not to have chronic hepatitis B, they will be reliant on taking precautions to reduce the chance of exposure and relying on those around them for protection. In other words, these people will be reliant on herd immunity.

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