Quebec Projects And Organizations
Footnote *Fighting against HIV and HCV in Quebec:
This project aims to improve the knowledge and skills of priority populations-gay and bisexual men, people who inject drugs, people living with HIV-and people who may interact with people living with HIV in the course of their work. To do this, the project will offer training workshops and information sessions on prevention to people from priority populations and people who may interact with people living with HIV in their work.
This project will promote the adoption of safer sexual behaviours and reduce stigma among at-risk youth from Montreal’s Caribbean and sub-Saharan African communities by increasing their knowledge about the transmission of sexually transmitted and blood-borne infections and building their capacity to manage their sexual health. To do this, the project will offer workshops that are culturally adapted to the realities and needs of young people. In addition, it will facilitate access to testing services for participants. Awareness-raising kiosks will be organized during festivals and neighbourhood festivals.
This Community Alliance will offer workshops, organize symposia and disseminate reliable information to increase the knowledge and skills of community workers, professionals working in prisons and people from priority populations . A trans-inclusive approach will be adopted by alliance members and the participation of people with lived experience will be sought.
What Can I Do If I Think I Have Hepatitis C
A doctor or sexual health clinician can test you to see if you have hepatitis C. If you do, effective treatment with fewer side effects than the older medicine is available and you can discuss how to avoid infecting your sexual partners or people you live with.
It can take three to six months before the blood test for hepatitis C will be able to detect signs of infection in your blood. For people with HIV who may be immunocompromised, the antibody may not be detectable and it may be necessary to request an RNA test which detects the virus.
Is Hepatitis C Sexually Transmitted
Can hepatitis C be spread through sexual contact?
Hepatitis C is a contagious liver disease caused by the hepatitis C virus . The disease can be passed from person to person.
As with many infections, HCV lives in blood and bodily fluids. You can contract hepatitis C by coming into direct contact with an infected persons blood. It can also be transmitted by contact with bodily fluids including saliva or semen of an infected person, but this is rare.
Researchers in found that 1 out of every 190,000 instances of heterosexual sexual contact led to HCV transmission. Participants in the study were in monogamous sexual relationships.
HCV may be more likely to spread through sexual contact if you:
- have multiple sexual partners
- participate in rough sex, which is more likely to result in broken skin or bleeding
- dont use barrier protection, such as condoms or dental dams
- dont use barrier protection properly
- have a sexually transmitted infection or HIV
Theres no evidence that HCV can be spread through oral sex. However, it may still be possible if blood is present from either the person giving or receiving oral sex.
For example, a slight risk may exist if any of the following are present:
- menstrual blood
- genital warts
- any other breaks in the skin in the involved areas
Though sexual transmission is rare overall, HCV may be more likely to spread through anal sex than oral sex. This is because rectal tissue is more likely to tear during intercourse.
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Contaminated Needles And Infected Blood
You can get hepatitis C from sharing contaminated needles, syringes and other injecting equipment during recreational drug use. Banknotes and straws used for snorting may also pass the virus on.
Being exposed to unsterilised tattoo and body piercing equipment can also pass hepatitis C on. Occasionally, you can get it from sharing a towel, razor blades or a toothbrush if there is infected blood on them.
Hepatitis C infection is also passed on in healthcare settings, from needle stick injuries or from medical and dental equipment that has not been properly sterilised. In countries where blood products are not routinely screened, you can also get hepatitis C by receiving a transfusion of unscreened blood and blood products.
You can prevent hepatitis C by:
- never sharing needles and syringes or other items that may be contaminated with infected blood
- only having tattoos, body piercings or acupuncture in a professional setting, where new, sterile needles are used
- following the standard infection control precautions, if youre working in a healthcare setting.
Newfoundland/labrador Projects And Organizations
Social Health Information Exchange Labrador District :
This project will offer annual arts-based leadership summits for Indigenous youth in Labrador communities, in order to improve their leadership skills, self-worth, holistic well-being and knowledge and uptake of effective ways to prevent HIV, hepatitis C and sexually transmitted and blood-borne infections . Using ACT , Peer Leadership Teams will support, empower and educate youth on sexual health, STBBI, healthy relationships and positive life skills through skills sharing opportunities at regional events and in participants’ home communities. An arts-based, culturally-relevant and multi-language website will provide resources and information to increase access to holistic health and social services for Labradorians .
Getting to Zero:
This project will increase knowledge of effective prevention interventions for HIV, hepatitis C and other sexually transmitted and blood-borne infections through training, a youth-focussed educational app and a social media campaign. The training will be offered to front-line professionals working with target populations-lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer youth, gay men, seniors, people who use drugs, people living in correctional facilities. The educational app will reach youth between the ages of 16-29 from across the province. The social media campaign will reach people living with HIV and/or hepatitis C.
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How It’s Passed On
The hepatitis C virus is found in blood and is passed on when infected blood gets into another persons bloodstream. Its seen as unlikely that it can be passed on in semen.
Most people get the virus from sharing drug injecting equipment such as needles, syringes, water cups, tourniquets, spoons, filters and swabs. Sharing things like straws and banknotes that are used for snorting drugs might pass the virus on, as can sharing pipes.
In the UK piercing and tattooing should be safe but unsterilised equipment abroad can spread the virus.
An infected person risks infecting others if they share anything that might have blood on it like a toothbrush or razor. A pregnant woman with the virus can give it to her baby during pregnancy or childbirth.
Blood transfusions in the UK are safe as blood is screened.
You can also potentially get it from medical or dental treatment abroad in countries where hepatitis C is common and infection control is inadequate.
Hepatitis And Sex: Frequently Asked Questions
Itâs widely known that viral hepatitis can spread through consuming contaminated food or sharing dirty hypodermic needles. But the liver-destroying disease can also sometimes be spread through sexual contact. Hereâs what you need to know to protect yourself.
How many kinds of viral hepatitis are there?
Can all types be spread by sexual contact?
Hepatitis A spreads via fecal-oral contact, which can occur if there is direct oral-anal contact or contact with fingers or objects that have been in or near the anus of an infected person. If even a microscopic amount of virus-laden feces gets into the mouth, infection potentially can result.
Are men and women equally at risk of getting and spreading hepatitis through sex?
The risk is determined by a personâs behavior, not their gender, although some studies have shown that it is easier for a man to transmit HCV to a woman than vice versa.
Men who have sex with men are 10 to 15 times more likely than the general population to be infected with hepatitis B.
How can I make sure my partner is free of hepatitis before we have sex?
Are some sex acts especially likely to transmit hepatitis?
Any sexual activity that might cause abrasions, cuts, or other trauma is especially risky.
Is it possible to catch hepatitis from kissing?
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Enteric Routes: Transmission Of Hepatitis A And Hepatitis E
The Hepatitis A and hepatitis E viruses are both transmitted by enteric, that is digestive or by fecal, routes. This is also known as the fecal-oral route. To be exposed to these viruses, you must ingest fecal matter that is infected with the virus. While there are several ways in which this fecal-oral route can be established, poor hygiene and poor sanitary conditions in some countries lead to higher rates of infection of these viruses.
As a result, some areas of the world, like India, Bangladesh, and Central and South America, are particularly prone to the hepatitis E virus. About one-third of people in the United States have been exposed to the hepatitis A virus.
It is believed that the hepatitis F virus may also be spread by enteric routes.
The Types Of Viral Hepatitis
There are five main types of viral hepatitis known as hepatitis A , hepatitis B , hepatitis C , hepatitis D , and hepatitis E . That said, there have been cases of acute hepatitis that could not be attributed to one of these five types of hepatitis viruses, alcohol, drugs, or autoimmune disease, which lead researchers to try to find another cause.
Though the etiology of these viruses have not yet been fully established, researchers have identified three other types of viral hepatitis , which they have named hepatitis F , hepatitis G , and transfusions transmitted virus . As relatively new diseases and viral discoveries, information about them and how they work is relatively scarce. We do know, however, that cases of TTV have only been associated with hepatitis in people who have had a blood transfusion.
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Why Might Hcv Be Transmitted Under These Circumstances
Transmission happens when you get tiny breaches of the skin, which can occur with anal sex whether youre heterosexual or gay. It can also happen when you get tiny breaches in the nasal mucosa, thats how its thought to be spread through the use of intra-nasal drugs. It can also be spread through intravenous drugs use.
Ontario Projects And Organizations
Advancing our Region’s Engagement with HIV/HCV/STBBI Prevention, Testing and Connection to Care:
This project will deliver a multi-platform campaign to increase knowledge of testing for HIV and other sexually transmitted and blood-borne infections and improve the intent to test among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men and members of ethno-cultural communities. In addition, the project will reach GBMSM who use drugs through one-on-one and group prevention and education sessions aimed at increasing both HIV/STBBI testing and the adoption of safer sex, drug use and tattooing/piercing practices.
iRESPECT – Integrated Regional Education & Peer Engagement Capacity Transfer:
This Community Alliance will improve the knowledge and uptake of effective prevention interventions for HIV, hepatitis C and other sexually transmitted and blood-borne infections among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men, transgender individuals, at-risk youth and people living with HIV. This will be achieved through workshops, educational sessions and materials, counselling, peer engagement and community events. In addition, the project will provide workshops to service providers on the sexual health needs and barriers to accessing services for transgender individuals.
Primary and Secondary Prevention in Toronto:My Sexuality Bundle: Traditional & contemporary tools for a healthy sex life:Building Parent, Child and Adolescent Resilience in an Environment of HIV Stigma:
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What Are The Rates Of Sexually Acquired Hepatitis C Infection Among Gbmsm
gbMSM living with HIV
In the early 2000s, reports began to appear of hepatitis C outbreaks among populations of gbMSM living with HIV where the vast majority of the men did not report typical blood-related risks for transmission, such as injection drug use or medical/dental care in countries where universal precautions to prevent hepatitis C infection have not been consistently implemented.6,15 These were the first reports to suggest that hepatitis C could be passed through sex. Over time, as more research was published globally on rates of hepatitis C infection among gbMSM living with HIV, it became accepted that sex was a pathway for transmission of hepatitis C among gbMSM living with HIV.6,10,16
Two international systematic reviews reported that the hepatitis C prevalence rate among HIV-positive gbMSM with no history of injection drug use is about seven in 100.17,18 This is higher than the estimated prevalence rate of five in 100 among gbMSM with/without HIV in a survey across five cities in Canada.19
HIV-negative gbMSM have much lower rates of new hepatitis C infections than HIV-positive gbMSM. Rates ranged from 0.4 to 1.5 new hepatitis C infections per 1000 person-years among HIV-negative gbMSM.16
Can Hepatitis C Be Spread During Vaginal Sex
Its rare for the hepatitis C virus to be transmitted through vaginal intercourse. Unless the vaginal walls arent lubricated or intercourse is very rough and leads to tears in the vaginal wall, theres no opportunity for blood to be exchanged. The risk for transmission with vaginal intercourse is about 1 in 190,000, according to research published in the March 2013 issue of the journal Hepatology.
Research published in the Journal of Coagulation Disorders in March 2014 reinforces these findings, emphasizing that transmission of the hepatitis C virus by sex in monogamous heterosexual couples is rare. And the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention states that couples in monogamous heterosexual relationships do not need to use condoms routinely, even if one partner has hepatitis C. Concerned couples, however, can discuss using a condom to lower the already very low risk of spreading the virus, says Talal.
Just how safe sex is when a partner has hepatitis C hinges on some other factors as well. For example, its important to use a new condom with each sexual act that has the potential to expose the uninfected partner to the infected persons blood, even if youre in a committed relationship, says the CDC. Some of these situations include sex when you or your partner:
- Has an open cut or sore
- Has another sexually transmitted infection , especially one that causes sores or lesions
- Is having her menstrual period
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For Safer Sex Treat Hepatitis C
If you have chronic hepatitis C, of the best strategies for preventing transmission of the virus is to get medical treatment. More than 90 percent cases of hepatitis C can be cured within 8 to 12 weeks of treatment, according to the CDC. Newer hepatitis C treatments are not only effective but generally have fewer and much less severe side effects than previous drugs.
Just be aware that during treatment, transmission can still occur. And a cure doesnt grant you protection against the virus for life. If you continue to engage in high-risk behavior, you can get re-infected, warns Kenneth Sherman, MD, PhD, a professor of medicine and the director of the division of digestive diseases at UC Health in Cincinnati, Ohio.
Is Hepatitis C Virus Sexually Transmitted
Exploring what we thought we knew and what we think we know now about how hepatitis C is passed on.
In the 15 or so years after the discovery of hepatitis C virus , the evidence did not point to the virus being sexually transmissible. Thanks to mounting data over the last decade, researchers and clinicians now view the virus differently.
Here, Dr Chloe Orkin, Consultant and Honorary Reader in HIV Medicine at Barts Health NHS Trust, explains how the medical profession came to understand that HCV can be transmitted through sexual contact.
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Can Vaccines Prevent The Sexual Transmission Of Hepatitis
- Hepatitis A: Measures used to prevent the spread of STDs, like the use of condoms, do not prevent hepatitis A transmission. Fortunately, an effective vaccine for preventing Hepatitis A transmission is available and is the most important measure to protect people at risk of infection.
- Hepatitis B: A hepatitis B vaccine safely and effectively protects against infection of the virus. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices have recommended the hepatitis B vaccination for:
- Sexually active people who are not in long-term, mutually monogamous relationships .
- People seeking evaluation or treatment for a sexually transmitted disease.
- CDC also recommends hepatitis B testing and hepatitis B vaccination for
- Sexual partners of people with hepatitis B.
Dendritic Cells In Sexual Transmission Of Hcv
Molecular mechanisms of HCV transmission
Submucosal DCs capture HCV and migrate into the lymphoid tissues to transmit HCV to PBMCs which might lead to further dissemination HCV to the liver. Mucosal LCs capture HCV after immune activation by STIs and either retain HCV in the tissue which could increase the chance of virus to egress into the bloodstream and disseminate to the liver or migrate into the lymphoid tissues thereby allowing HCV dissemination to the liver. DCSIGN, dendritic cellspecific ICAMgrabbing nonintegrin HCV, Hepatitis C virus HIV1, Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 PBMC, peripheral blood mononuclear cells STI, Sexual transmitted infections.
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What Is The Treatment For Hepatitis C
Drugs are licensed for treatment of persons with chronic hepatitis C. Combination drug therapy, using pegylated interferon and ribavirin, can get rid of the virus in up to five out of ten of persons with genotype 1, the most common genotype in the U.S. and eight out of ten persons with genotype 2 or 3. It is important to know that not everyone will need treatment. The decision to treat hepatitis C is complex and is best made by a physician experienced in treating the disease.