Wednesday, September 21, 2022

How Can You Catch Hepatitis C

Can You Get Hep C From Recreational Drug Use

How is Hepatitis C spread? — Mayo Clinic

The main way hepatitis C is spread is blood-to-blood, says Rena Fox, M.D., a professor of medicine at the University of California, San Francisco, and an internist and hepatitis specialist at UCSF Health. So any activity where you might come in contact with another persons blood, like sharing needles, puts you at risk.

In fact, sharing needles and syringes is the most common way hepatitis C is spread, says Dr. Fox. We started seeing the number of new cases per year rise again about four or five years ago, along with an increase in heroin use with the opioid epidemic, she says. If people become addicted to prescription opiates, but then lose access to them, she explains, they may turn to heroin which often involves sharing needles.

How Do You Test For Hepatitis C

A simple blood test carried out by a healthcare professional will show whether you have the virus. You may also be given an extra test to see if your liver is damaged.

If youve got hepatitis C you should be tested for other STIs. It’s important that you tell your recent sexual partner/s so they can also get tested and treated. Many people who have hepatitis C do not notice anything wrong, and by telling them you can help to stop the virus being passed on. It can also stop you from getting the infection again.

Who Is At Risk For Hepatitis C

You are more likely to get hepatitis C if you

  • Have injected drugs

If you have chronic hepatitis C, you probably will not have symptoms until it causes complications. This can happen decades after you were infected. For this reason, hepatitis C screening is important, even if you have no symptoms.

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What Are The Signs & Symptoms Of Hcv Infection

Hepatitis C can be a “silent but deadly” infection. Most people with HCV have no symptoms. But even without symptoms, they can develop health problems decades later and can still pass the disease to others.

When symptoms do happen , they can be similar to those of hepatitis A and hepatitis B and include:

  • jaundice
  • fever
  • nausea, vomiting, and lack of appetite
  • belly pain
  • joint pain

Hepatitis C Symptoms & Treatment

The difference between hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E

FAST FACTS:

  • Hepatitis C is found in infected blood. It is also rarely found in semen and vaginal fluids.

  • Hepatitis C is mainly passed on through using contaminated needles and syringes or sharing other items with infected blood on them. It can also be passed on through unprotected sex, especially when blood is present.

  • You can prevent hepatitis C by never sharing needles and syringes, practising safer sex, and avoiding unlicensed tattoo parlours and acupuncturists.

  • Hepatitis C will often not have any noticeable symptoms, but a simple blood test carried out by a healthcare professional will show whether you have hepatitis C.

  • In the early stages, some peoples bodies can clear a hepatitis C infection on their own, others may develop chronic hepatitis C and will need to take antiviral treatment to cure the infection.

  • Without treatment, chronic hepatitis C can lead to permanent liver damage.

Hepatitis C is part of a group of hepatitis viruses that attack the liver.

Its mainly passed on through contaminated needles, either from injecting drugs or from needle stick injuries in healthcare settings. It can also be transmitted sexually, especially during anal sex or other types of sex that may involve blood.

Some groups are more at risk of getting hepatitis C than others, including people who use drugs, people in prisons, men who have sex with men, health workers and people living with HIV.

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Can You Get Hep C More Than Once

Some people think hepatitis C is a one-and-done viruskind of like the chickenpox. But it is possible to get it more than once in your life, Dr. Fox says. If somebody had the infection, was cured of it, then goes back to the same behavior that got them infected in the first place, they can get re-infected, she explains. The chance of re-infection is lower though, suggesting that you may develop some degree of immunity after your first infection.

Still though, hepatitis C can lead to severe liver damage if left untreated, so if youre engaging in behaviors that put you at risk of getting or transmitting hepatitis C, talk with your doctor. A physician can answer your specific concerns and let you know whether or how often you should get screened. Thankfully, curing hepatitis C is easier than ever thanks to new, highly effective drugsbut better yet, you can avoid getting it in the first place!

Can I Catch Hep C From Sex

Understandably, thats a common question doctors hear. Thankfully, the risk is pretty low, says Dr. Fox. There have been lots of studies of couples who are discordantwhere one person is positive for hep C and one is negativeand sexual transmission between heterosexual partners is very infrequent, she says. On the other hand, the risk rises slightly with anal sex, where bleeding is more common, and transmission is greater if one partner has HIV.

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Is There A Way To Prevent Hepatitis C

Although currently theres no vaccine to protect people from contracting hepatitis C, there are vaccines for other hepatitis viruses, including hepatitis A and hepatitis B.

If you receive a hepatitis C diagnosis, your healthcare provider may advise you to get vaccinated against hepatitis A and B.

The vaccinations are recommended because these hepatitis viruses can lead to additional health and liver complications, especially in those with preexisting liver disease.

Since you cant prevent hepatitis C through a vaccine, the best prevention is to avoid exposure. Hepatitis C is a bloodborne pathogen, so you can limit your chances of exposure through these healthy lifestyle practices:

  • Avoid sharing needles, razor blades, or nail clippers.
  • Use proper safety precautions if youll be exposed to bodily fluids, such as when performing first aid.
  • Hepatitis C isnt usually transmitted through sexual contact, but its possible. Limit your exposure by practicing sex with a condom or other barrier method. Its also important to openly communicate with sexual partners and to get tested if you suspect youve been exposed to the hepatitis C virus.

Because hepatitis C is transmitted through blood, its possible to contract it through a blood transfusion.

However, since the early 1990s, blood product screening tests have been standard protocol for minimizing the risk of this type of transmission.

Subsequent testing is based on risk. Talk to your doctor about your needs.

Getting Tested For Hepatitis C

How Does Hepatitis C Hurt Your Liver? | WebMD

Seek medical advice if you have persistent symptoms of hepatitis C or there’s a risk you’re infected, even if you do not have any symptoms.

A blood test can be carried out to see if you have the infection.

GPs, sexual health clinics, genitourinary medicine clinics or drug treatment services all offer testing for hepatitis C.

Early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent or limit any damage to your liver, as well as help ensure the infection is not passed on to other people.

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Spread Of Hepatitis C

Hepatitis C is spread through blood-to-blood contact when blood from a person with hepatitis C enters another persons bloodstream.

The most common way people become infected with hepatitis C in Australia is by sharing injecting equipment such as needles, syringes, spoons and tourniquets. It is possible to be infected with hepatitis C after only one risk event.

Hepatitis C may also be spread through:

  • tattooing and body piercing with equipment that has not been properly cleaned, disinfected or sterilised such as backyard tattoos’. Registered parlours with appropriate infection control procedures are not a risk
  • needlestick injuries in a healthcare setting
  • receiving blood transfusions in Australia prior to 1990 before hepatitis C virus testing of blood donations was introduced
  • medical procedures, blood transfusions or blood products and mass immunisation programs provided in a country other than Australia
  • pregnancy or childbirth there is a 5% chance of a mother with chronic hepatitis C infection passing on the virus to her baby during pregnancy or childbirth.

Breastfeeding is safe, however if nipples are cracked or bleeding cease breastfeeding until they have healed.

Less likely possible routes of transmission of hepatitis C include:

Hepatitis C cannot be transmitted by:

  • kissing
  • sharing food, cups or cutlery
  • shaking hands or day-to-day physical contact.

Gay Men Chemsex And Hep C

Group sex and chemsex parties provide the perfect storm for hepatitis C transmission.

If youre taking drugs and having sex for longer your inhibitions are likely to be lowered and the delicate skin lining the anus can be damaged, causing bleeding. Hep C is very infectious and is easily passed on through group sex it can even be passed from one person to another on fingers.

The virus spreads through anal sex and fisting when condoms and gloves are not used. Its also passed on during group sex, on objects such as sex toys, fingers, enema equipment, condoms, latex gloves or in contaminated lubricant.

The iBase guide Safer HCV sex for gay men is a useful reminder of what to avoid and what steps to take to protect yourself.

The Hepatitis C Trust has some useful information about transmission. They also provide an advocacy service for men who have sex with men who have been re-infected with hepatitis C after previously being successfully treated.

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How Is Hepatitis C Infection Prevented

Unfortunately, there is no vaccine to prevent hepatitis C. To reduce your risk of getting hepatitis C:

  • Injection drug use is the most common way people get hepatitis C. Avoid injecting drugs to reduce your risk. If you do inject drugs, use sterile injection equipment. Avoid reusing or sharing.
  • Avoid sharing personal care items that might have blood on them
  • If you are a health care or public safety worker, follow universal blood/body fluid precautions and safely handle needles and other sharps
  • Consider the risks if you are thinking about tattooing, body piercing, or acupuncture are the instruments properly sterilized?
  • If youre having sex with more than one partner, use latex condoms correctly and every time to prevent the spread of sexually transmitted diseases, including hepatitis C.

Preventing The Spread Of Hepatitis C

What Is Hepatitis C?

There is no vaccine available to prevent a person from being infected with hepatitis C. Recommended behaviours to prevent the spread of the virus include:

  • Always use sterile injecting equipment. This can be accessed from your local needle and syringe program service.
  • Avoid sharing personal items such as toothbrushes, razors, nail files or nail scissors, which can draw blood.
  • If you are involved in body piercing, tattooing, electrolysis or acupuncture, always ensure that any instrument that pierces the skin is either single use or has been cleaned, disinfected and sterilised since it was last used.
  • If you are a healthcare worker, follow standard precautions at all times.
  • Wherever possible, wear single-use gloves if you give someone first aid or clean up blood or body fluids.
  • Although hepatitis C is not generally considered to be a sexually transmissible infection in Australia, you may wish to consider safe sex practices if blood is going to be present, or if your partner has HIV infection. You may wish to further discuss this issue and personal risks with your doctor.

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Is There A Cure

Though there is no vaccine for Hepatitis C, treatments can reduce the viral load to undetectable levels which is considered cured or in remission.

The virus is considered cured when it is not detected in your blood 12 weeks after treatment is completed. This is otherwise known as a sustained virologic response .

Hepatitis C is one of the most serious hepatitis viruses. However, with newer treatments developed over the past few years, the virus is much more manageable than it was in the past.

Current antiviral drugs that help cure hepatitis C may also help prevent the health complications of chronic liver disease.

The reports less than half of people who contract the hepatitis C virus may clear it from their bodies without treatment. For this group of people, the virus will be a short-term acute condition that goes away without treatment.

But for most people, acute hepatitis C will likely develop into a chronic condition that requires treatment.

Since the virus often doesnt produce symptoms until after more significant liver damage occurs, its important to get tested for hepatitis C if you think you might have been exposed.

approved the antiviral drug Mavyret for an 8-week treatment period for people with all genotypes of hepatitis C.

This treatment is now being used for many people instead of the 12-week treatment that was previously required.

Noninvasive ways to test for liver damage caused by hepatitis C are also now available to aid in diagnosis.

Sometimes The Infection Goes Away On Its Own

Acute hepatitis is C is a short-term illness that occurs within the first six months after being exposed to the virus. Like the human papillomavirus , early acute hepatitis C can clear on its own without treatment this happens about 25% of the time.

However, it’s more likely that the virus will remain in your body longer than six months, at which point it’s considered to be chronic hepatitis C infection.

“Being younger or a woman tends to be a factor in whether the virus clears on its own, and genetics may play a role,” Reau says. “But we can’t determine with certainty which people are certain to clear the infection and which aren’t.”

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How Long Before I Have Symptoms

Curing Hepatitis C – WTHR

Many people have mild symptoms or no symptoms, which is why hepatitis is sometimes called a √Ęsilent√Ę disease.

Hepatitis A. The symptoms usually show up 2 to 6 weeks after the virus entered your body. They usually last for less than 2 months, though sometimes you can be sick for as long as 6 months.

Some warning signs that you may have hepatitis A are:

Hepatitis B. The symptoms are the same as hepatitis A, and you usually get them 3 months after you’re infected. They could show up, though, anywhere from 6 weeks to 6 months later.

Sometimes the symptoms are mild and last just a few weeks. For some people, the hep B virus stays in the body and leads to long-term liver problems.

Hepatitis C. The early symptoms are the same as hepatitis A and B, and they usually happen 6 to 7 weeks after the virus gets in your body. But you could notice them anywhere from 2 weeks to 6 months later.

For about 25% of people who get hep C, the virus goes away on its own without treatment. In other cases, it sticks around for years. When that happens, your liver might get damaged.

Remember, it’s possible to spread all the types of hepatitis even if you don’t show any signs of being sick.

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Sharing Personal Care Items

The chances of spreading hepatitis C within your household are low but possible. To be safe, don’t share personal care items that could be contaminated with blood, Lee says. These include razors, toothbrushes, cuticle scissors, and nail clippers.

In addition, be mindful when you go to nail salons or barbershops, where the same tools are used on all customers. A study published in the November-December 2014 issue of the Journal of Public Health Management & Practice found that while regulations to safeguard the public exist in most states, it’s unknown how many businesses comply with them. Ask about tool-sterilization procedures before you frequent these establishments. You can also bring your own nail care supplies.

Should I Be Screened For Hepatitis C

Doctors usually recommend one-time screening of all adults ages 18 to 79 for hepatitis C. Screening is testing for a disease in people who have no symptoms. Doctors use blood tests to screen for hepatitis C. Many people who have hepatitis C dont have symptoms and dont know they have hepatitis C. Screening tests can help doctors diagnose and treat hepatitis C before it causes serious health problems.

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Sharing Toothbrushes Scissors And Razors

There’s a potential risk that hepatitis C may be passed on through sharing items such as toothbrushes, razors and scissors, as they can become contaminated with infected blood.

Equipment used by hairdressers, such as scissors and clippers, can pose a risk if it has been contaminated with infected blood and not sterilised or cleaned between customers. However, most salons operate to high standards, so this risk is low.

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