Immunisation Against Hepatitis A
Immunisation is the best protection against hepatitis A infection and is recommended for people in high-risk groups, and for unvaccinated people who have been in close contact with someone who has hepatitis A.
Immunisation against hepatitis A includes a course of injections over a 6 to 12-month period. Healthy people 12 months of age and over receive 2 doses of hepatitis A vaccine, or 3 doses if the hepatitis A and hepatitis B vaccines are given as a combination.
You can complete any missed vaccine doses, even if the recommended time frame has passed. You do not need to start the vaccine course again.
If you are in close contact with someone who has hepatitis A be sure to have the hepatitis A vaccine if you have not already completed a vaccine course.
Babies under 12 months of age and people who have a weakened immune system who are also in close contact with a person with hepatitis A can have an injection of normal human immunoglobulin instead of the hepatitis A vaccine.
Protection against hepatitis A is available free of charge under the National Immunisation Program Schedule for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children who live in high-risk areas .
Are There Home Remedies For Hepatitis A
The following measures can help you feel better while you are having symptoms.
- Take it easy curtail normal activities and spend time resting at home.
- Drink plenty of clear fluids to prevent dehydration.
- Avoid medicines and substances that can cause harm to the liver such as acetaminophen and preparations that contain acetaminophen.
- Should alcoholic beverages, as these can worsen the effects of HAV on the liver.
- Reduce prolonged, vigorous exercise until symptoms start to improve.
Autoimmune Hepatitis Causes Symptoms Types & Treatment
Hepatitis means liver inflammation, and it has common causes, such as viruses and alcoholism. But, we will discuss an exception of hepatitis in which your body attacks your liver cells. We will discuss autoimmune hepatitis.
Autoimmune hepatitis is a chronic autoimmune disease in which your immune system recognizes your liver cells as foreign bodies and attacks them, which causes liver inflammation . If untreated, it may end with liver scarring and liver cell failure.
Its a lifelong liver condition, and you should monitor it for life to keep it under control.
As with most autoimmune diseases, autoimmune hepatitis affects women more than men more than 70% of patients are women. It is a rare disease and affects about 11 to 17 people per 100,000 in Europe. About 10,000 people are living with it in Europe. It affects any age, but it has two age peaks, one at 10 20 years and another around 45 years. It also affects any ethnic group. In 30% to 50% of patients, autoimmune hepatitis doesnt occur alone. The patient usually suffers from other autoimmune diseases, such as thyrotoxicosis, rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis, and type I diabetes.
Autoimmune hepatitis develops gradually over time. Its presentation varies from mild to severe and depends on the amount of liver damage. At first, you may have no symptoms or some nonspecific symptoms. But as the disease progresses, more liver damage occurs, and more symptoms appear.
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What Are The Common Types Of Viral Hepatitis
Although the most common types of viral hepatitis are HAV, HBV, and HCV, some clinicians had previously considered the acute and chronic phases of hepatic infections as “types” of viral hepatitis. HAV was considered to be acute viral hepatitis because the HAV infections seldom caused permanent liver damage that led to hepatic failure. HBV and HCV produced chronic viral hepatitis. However, these terms are outdated and not currently used as frequently because all of the viruses that cause hepatitis may have acute phase symptoms . Prevention techniques and vaccinations have markedly reduced the current incidence of common viral hepatitis infections however, there remains a population of about 1 to 2 million people in the U.S. with chronic HBV, and about 3.5 million with chronic HCV according to the CDC. Statistics are incomplete for determining how many new infections occur each year the CDC documented infections but then goes on to estimate the actual numbers by further estimating the number of unreported infections .
Types D, E, and G Hepatitis
Individuals who already have chronic HBV infection can acquire HDV infection at the same time as they acquire the HBV infection, or at a later time. Those with chronic hepatitis due to HBV and HDV develop cirrhosis rapidly. Moreover, the combination of HDV and HBV virus infection is very difficult to treat.
Who Is At Risk For Hepatitis C
It only takes one exposure to hepatitis C to become chronically infected, so people who have injected illegal drugs even one time or many years previously could have chronic hepatitis C, and not know it since there are often no symptoms. People with blood transfusions prior to 1992 – when they started testing blood for transfusion for hepatitis C – also may have become chronically infected.
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What Is The Prognosis/outlook For Patients Who Have Hepatitis A
Most cases of hepatitis A are short-lived, but the disease doesnt always look the same for everyone. Some people have short illnesses that only last a few weeks and have mild symptoms. Others can be very ill for several months. Hepatitis A is rarely fatal, but death has happened due to liver failure brought on by HAV. This tends to happen more often in people who are over 50 years old or and in people who have another liver condition.
Hepatitis A Causes Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment
In this blog I will give you information about Hepatitis A. It is caused by hepatitis A virus.
Hepat = LiverItis. = Inflammation
It means that hepatitis is the inflammation of liver. I will give you information in such a way that you can understand easily.
There are 5 viruses that causes hepatitis named as Hepatitis virus A,B,C,D,E.
Hepatitis A & Hepatitis E have common features so once you understand hepatitis A at same time you understand 90% part of hepatitis E.
- Both are RNA viruses
- It spread by faecal oral route
- Mostly acute and self-limiting with no progression to chronic liver disease
We learn this topic in below format.
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How Is Hepatitis A Diagnosed
Your healthcare provider will listen to your symptoms and will take a blood test to confirm the diagnosis of hepatitis A. If the test finds immunoglobulin M antibodies, you have an acute hepatitis A. If there are antibodies, but not IgM antibodies, you are immune to the virus either because you had a case of it and recovered, or you got the hepatitis A vaccine.
Reducing The Risk Of Hepatitis A
Protecting yourself from hepatitis A
The most important action you can take to protect yourself against hepatitis A is to get vaccinated.
Practising strict personal hygiene is also essential to reducing the risk of hepatitis A. Steps you can take include:
- Wash your hands with soap and hot running water before handling food, after going to the toilet and after handling used condoms or having contact with nappies or the anal area of another person. Use a clean towel to dry your hands.
- Use barrier protection when engaging in oral-anal sex and avoid sex with someone who is infected with the hepatitis A virus.
- Vaccination may prevent illness if given within 2 weeks of contact with an infectious person.
- Clean bathrooms and toilets often, paying attention to toilet seats, handles, taps and nappy change tables.
- Boil your drinking water if it comes from an untreated source, such as a river.
- If you are travelling overseas, particularly to countries where hepatitis A is widespread, take special care to avoid hepatitis A. Before travelling, talk to your doctor about immunisation for protection.
Protecting others from hepatitis A
If you have hepatitis:
- Wash eating utensils in soapy water, and machine wash linen and towels.
Household contacts and sexual partners of an infectious person may need to be immunised.
All people who have hepatitis A should check with their doctor before returning to work or school.
Protecting yourself from hepatitis A when overseas
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Whats The Best Way To Stop The Spread Of Hepatitis A
Hepatitis A vaccination is the best way to prevent hepatitis A. The hepatitis A vaccine is given in 2 doses, usually about 6 months apart.
Other ways to stop the spread of HAV are:
- Always washing your hands with soap and warm water immediately after using the bathroom or changing a diaper
- Always washing your hands with soap and warm water before preparing or eating food
Alternative And Complementary Therapies
Because hepatitis A resolves on its own, there havent been many studies on alternative or complementary therapies to treat it.
A case report published in Integrative Medicine Research in December 2019 treated a patient with HAV with herbal medicines, twice daily acupuncture, and moxibustion.
Moxibustion is a traditional Chinese healing technique in which mugwort is burned on top of an acupuncture point.
The authors concluded that this Korean-based medicine treatment may be effective in shortening how long a person took to recover from hepatitis A, compared with no treatment at all.
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How Does Hepatitis A Spread
Hepatitis A is spread from person to person via fecal contamination because the virus is present in the stool. It is spread via contaminated food or water by an infected person who gets small amounts of stool on his or her hands, does not wash his or her hands, and passes the stool onto food that is eaten by others. An example of this is outbreaks of hepatitis A in daycare centers for young children when employees don’t wash their hands after changing diapers, and they then pass the viruses to the next child they feed. In addition, fecal contamination of water in which shellfish live can contaminate the shellfish, and the shellfish can pass the virus to people who eat the shellfish raw.
Treatment Of Hepatitis In Cats
Treatment for your cats hepatitis will depend on how ill he or she is – hospitalization and fluid therapy may be necessary, along with supplements in the form of dextrose, vitamin B and potassium.
While in treatment and recovery, your cats activity will be restricted. Ask your vet whether cage rest is an option, and prioritize keeping your cat warm.
Fluid buildup in the abdomen can be alleviated by medications, which may also be prescribed to treat infection in the abdomen, decrease brain swelling, decrease ammonia production and absorption, and control other serious symptoms such as seizures.
The colon may need to be emptied with an enema. Your cat will then be switched to a diet of several small meals a day. This diet will also be light on sodium and supplemented with vitamins and thiamine.
If your cat is experiencing a loss of appetite, talk to your vet about using an intravenous feeding tube to ensure they do not lose any more muscle.
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Prevent Infection After Contact With The Virus
If you think you have come in contact with the hepatitis A virus, see your doctor right away. A dose of the hepatitis A vaccine or a medicine called hepatitis A immune globulin may protect you from getting the infection. Your doctor may recommend a vaccine dose or medicine if
- you live with, have had sex with, or have had close contact with someone who has hepatitis A
- you shared illegal drugs with someone who had hepatitis A
- you ate food or drank water possibly containing the hepatitis A virus
You must get the vaccine dose or medicine shortly after coming into contact with the virus to prevent infection.
Research And Statistics: How Many People Get Hepatitis A
Its estimated that there are 1.4 million cases of hepatitis A throughout the world every year, according to the World Health Organization.
There were 12,474 hepatitis A cases reported in the United States in 2018, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. However, experts believe there are many instances where people dont get diagnosed or tested for the infection, and so the actual number of Americans with HAV is thought to be closer to 24,900.
The number of hepatitis A cases has gone up in the past few years. More person-to-person outbreaks have been reported in groups of people who are unhoused or using IV drugs and among men who have sex with men.
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Preventive Measures For Hepatitis C
The infection is often passed from one person to another through the transfer of infected bodily fluids. So, you can follow the points suggested below to avoid HCV transmission:
- Never share needles. Always use disposable needles and throw them away after use.
- Avoid sharing toothbrushes or manicure equipment
- Ensure the skin perforating equipment is well-sterilized before using it on your body
- Avoid injecting recreational drugs
How Do Doctors Diagnose Hepatitis A
Doctors diagnose hepatitis A based on symptoms and a blood test. A health care professional will take a blood sample from you and send the sample to a lab. A blood test will detect antibodies to the hepatitis A virus called immunoglobulin M antibodies and show whether you have acute hepatitis A. If the blood test finds antibodies to the hepatitis A virus that are not IgM antibodies, then you are immune to hepatitis A, due to either past hepatitis A infection or hepatitis A vaccination.
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Who Is At Risk For Hepatitis A
Travelers to countries with high infection rates and the inhabitants of those countries are at higher risk for developing hepatitis A. The Centers for Disease Control issues travel advisories that identify the countries with outbreaks or endemic hepatitis A. Eating raw or uncooked foods increases the risk for hepatitis A.
Who Is Likely To Be Affected By Hepatitis A
Certain people are more at risk than others for hepatitis A. These include:
- People who use recreational drugs, both injected and non-injected types.
- Men who have sex with men.
- People who have close contact with someone who already is infected.
- People who have close contact with someone adopted from a country where hepatitis A is common, or people who travel to countries where hepatitis A is common.
- People who work with non-human primates.
- People who have clotting factor issues, including hemophilia.
- People who work in child care, or children who are in childcare.
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What Is Hepatitis E
Hepatitis E, also called enteric hepatitis , is similar to hepatitis A, and more prevalent in Asia and Africa. It is also transmitted through the fecal-oral route. It is generally not fatal, though it is more serious in women during pregnancy and can cause fetal complications. Most patients with hepatitis E recover completely.
Who Is At Risk For Hepatitis A Infection
Anyone who is not immune can get hepatitis A infection. Food-borne outbreaks occur sporadically throughout the USA. Certain groups of people do have a higher risk of developing HAV infection and should be vaccinated:
- Persons experiencing homelessness
- Persons living in the same household with an infected person
- Sex partner of an infected person
- Persons traveling to countries where hepatitis A is common
- Men who have sex with men
- People who use injection drugs
- Children in daycare
If your child has hep A, he may also have:
- Cold symptoms
- Sore throat
If youre over age 50 or have long-term liver disease, you may have a more severe case of the disease called fulminant hep A infection. You could have symptoms like:
- Spontaneous bleeding or easy bruising
- Confusion and changes in alertness
- The liver function that gets worse
- Yellowing of the skin and eyes that gets worse
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How Can You Avoid Hepatitis A
The best way to prevent hepatitis A is to bevaccinated. People with certain risk factors andhealth problems need this vaccine. Ask your doctor ifthe vaccine is right for you. You cannot get hepatitisA from the vaccine. Hepatitis A vaccination isrecommended for:
- All children at age 1 year
- People who use injection and non-injection illegal drugs
- People with chronic liver diseases, such as hepatitis B or hepatitis C
- People with bleeding problems who take clotting factors
- People whose work has a risk for hepatitis A infection
- People who live in areas with high rates of hepatitis A infection
- Travelers to countries that have high rates of hepatitis A. These include:
CDC’s Travelers’ Health site has information about hepatitis A and other vaccines.
Getting vaccinated is the best way to prevent hepatitis A.
Other ways to avoid hepatitis A:
- Boil water or drink bottled water in places where the water may not be clean.
- Eat cooked foods and fruits that you can peel. Avoid eating uncooked vegetables or fruits that could have been washed with dirty water, such as lettuce.
- Avoid eating raw or steamed shellfish such as oysters. Shellfish may live in dirty water.
- Use condoms correctly and every time you have sex.
- Clean hands often.
Can Hepatitis A Be Prevented Or Avoided
The best way to protect yourself against hepatitis A is to get the vaccine. The hepatitis A vaccination is recommended for all children older than age 1. It begins to protect you only 4 weeks after you are vaccinated. A 6- to 12-month booster is required for long-term protection. Ask your doctor if the vaccination is right for you.
You should also wash your hands with soap and warm water before and after cooking, after using the bathroom, and after changing diapers.
Wash fruits and vegetables thoroughly before eating and avoid raw or undercooked meat and fish.
You are at higher risk for hepatitis A if you:
- Live with or have sex with someone who has hepatitis A
- Travel to countries where hepatitis A is common
- Are a man who has sex with other men
- Use illegal drugs
- Have a clotting-factor disorder
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