Wednesday, May 18, 2022

What Is Hepatitis B Infection

Is There A Cure For Chronic Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B: Treatment and care for a chronic condition

Currently, there is no complete cure for hepatitis B. But when managed properly, those living with the virus can expect to live a normal life. Maintaining a healthy diet and avoiding alcoholic beverages and tobacco products are crucial components in managing the disease.

You should also visit a doctor familiar with hepatitis B at least annuallythough twice a year might be best to monitor your liver through blood tests and medical imaging. As with most diseases, detecting it early leads to a better outcome. If youre exposed to the virus, you should get an antibody injection within 12 hours of exposure.

Hiv And Hbv Coinfection

About 2% of people with HIV in the United States are coinfected with HBV both infections have similar routes of transmission. People with HIV are at greater risk for complications and death from HBV infection. All people with HIV are recommended to be tested for HBV, and if susceptible, are further recommended to receive the hepatitis B vaccination or, if chronically infected, evaluated for treatment to prevent liver disease and liver cancer. For more information about HIV and HBV coinfection, visit HIV.govâs pages about hepatitis B and HIV coinfection.

What Are The Symptoms Of Hepatitis B

After the virus enters the body, there is an incubation period lasting 1.5 to 6 months until illness begins. During the acute phase most persons have no symptoms or might experience a mild illness. Symptoms of acute HBV infection, when present, may include:

  • Jaundice
  • Dark-colored urine, light-colored stools
  • Fever

During the chronic phase hepatitis B usually progresses silently, with no symptoms at all during the first 10-20 years. Signs of severe liver scarring may include:

  • Ascites
  • Star-shaped vein pattern developing on the swollen belly
  • Jaundice
  • Easy bruising and bleeding

Chronic HBV infection can lead to serious liver disease, liver scarring , and hepatocellular cancer.

Because symptoms of hepatitis B are usually absent, persons with risk for HBV infection should be tested. If you think you have hepatitis B, or are at risk for hepatitis B, you should contact your doctor.

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How Is Hepatitis B Treated

Your healthcare provider will treat you based on what type of hepatitis B you have, acute or chronic.

Acute hepatitis B infections

If you develop an acute form of the condition, you probably wont need medical treatment. Instead, your doctor will likely suggest that you get plenty of rest, drink lots of fluids and maintain a healthy diet to support your body as it fights off the infection.

Chronic hepatitis B infections

If you have chronic hepatitis B, you might be a candidate for drug therapy. Usually, drug therapy is used only if you have active liver disease. There are seven drugs that are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat hepatitis B. Two are injectable forms of interferon, while the five other antivirals are tablets.

You will need to take these medications every day. They help by slowing the viruss ability to multiply in your system. This helps reduce swelling and liver damage. Youll need to be regularly monitored for early signs of liver damage and liver cancer. Your healthcare provider will want to see you once or twice a year.

What Is Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B Viruses Art Print / Canvas Print. Poster, Wall ...

Hepatitis B is the most common serious liver infection in the world. It is caused by the hepatitis B virus that attacks and injures the liver. Two billion people have been infected and about 300 million people are living with a chronic hepatitis B infection. Each year up to 1 million people die from hepatitis B despite the fact that it is preventable and treatable.

The hepatitis B virus is transmitted through blood and infected bodily fluids. It can be passed to others through direct contact with blood, unprotected sex, use of illegal drugs, unsterilized or contaminated needles, and from an infected woman to her newborn during pregnancy or childbirth.

Hepatitis B is a silent epidemic because most people do not have symptoms when they are newly infected or chronically infected. Thus, they can unknowingly spread the virus to others and continue the silent spread of hepatitis B. For people who are chronically infected but dont have any symptoms, their liver is still being silently damaged which can develop into serious liver disease such as cirrhosis or liver cancer.

The good news is that hepatitis B is preventable and treatable. There is a simple blood test to diagnose a hepatitis B infection. Testing is the only way to know for sure if you are infected. There is a safe vaccine to prevent hepatitis B. There are effective drug therapies that can manage a chronic hepatitis B infection, and a cure is within sight.

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How Is Hepatitis B Prevented

Testing & Vaccination

  • The hepatitis B vaccine offers excellent protection against HBV. The vaccine is safe and highly effective. Vaccination consists of 3 doses of vaccine over the course of 6 months. Protection lasts for 20 years to life.
  • The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that all children should receive hepatitis B vaccine starting at birth. .
  • The CDC recommends hepatitis B vaccine for persons traveling to countries where HBV is common .
  • If you have one or more risk factors for hepatitis B infection, you should get a simple HBV blood test. The blood test will determine whether you are:
  • immune to hepatitis B or
  • susceptible to hepatitis B and need vaccination or
  • infected with hepatitis B and need further evaluation by a physician
  • The basic test for acute HBV infection is called the Hepatitis B Core IgM Antibody test. People who have acute hepatitis B show positive IgM antibodies on this test.
  • Perinatal Hepatitis

    • California law requires testing of all pregnant women for hepatitis B infection
    • If the mother is HBV-infected, she will pass the infection to the baby during the birth process, unless the baby gets immunized within hours of birth
    • Giving the infant HBIG and HBV vaccine right away will reliably prevent infection of the infant
    • Other family members should best tested for hepatitis B too, and given vaccine if they are not already infected or immune

    Healthy Habits

    After Exposure to Hepatitis B

    Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Test

    A hepatitis B surface antigen test shows if youre contagious. A positive result means you have hepatitis B and can spread the virus. A negative result means you dont currently have hepatitis B. This test doesnt distinguish between chronic and acute infection. This test is used together with other hepatitis B tests to determine the .

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    Hepatitis B And Your Liver

    The liver is such an important organ that we can survive only one or two days if it completely shuts down – if the liver fails, your body will fail, too. Fortunately, the liver can function even when up to 80% of it is diseased or removed. This is because it has the amazing ability to regenerate – or create – itself from healthy liver cells that still exist.

    If your body were an automobile, your liver would be considered the engine. It does hundreds of vital things to make sure everything runs smoothly:

    • Stores vitamins, sugar and iron to help give your body energy
    • Controls the production and removal of cholesterol
    • Clears your blood of waste products, drugs and other poisonous substances
    • Makes clotting factors to stop excessive bleeding after cuts or injuries
    • Produces immune factors and removes bacteria from the bloodstream to combat infection
    • Releases a substance called “bile” to help digest food and absorb important nutrients

    The word hepatitis actually means inflammation of the liver. Thus, hepatitis B refers to inflammation of the liver caused by the hepatitis B virus. With early detection and appropriate follow-up medical care, people living with a chronic hepatitis B infection can expect to enjoy a long and healthy life.

    Whats The Prognosis For Hepatitis B

    Hepatitis B Infection with Case â Disorders of the Hepatobiliary Tract | Lecturio

    Your doctor will know youâve recovered when you no longer have symptoms and blood tests show:

    • Your liver is working normally.
    • You have hepatitis B surface antibody.

    But some people don’t get rid of the infection. If you have it for more than 6 months, youâre whatâs called a carrier, even if you donât have symptoms. This means you can give the disease to someone else through:

    • Unprotected sex
    • Contact with your blood or an open sore
    • Sharing needles or syringes

    Doctors donât know why, but the disease does go away in a small number of carriers. For others, it becomes whatâs known as chronic. That means you have an ongoing liver infection. It can lead to cirrhosis, or hardening of the organ. It scars over and stops working. Some people also get liver cancer.

    If youâre a carrier or are infected with hepatitis B, donât donate blood, plasma, body organs, tissue, or sperm. Tell anyone you could infect — whether itâs a sex partner, your doctor, or your dentist — that you have it.

    Show Sources

    CDC: âHepatitis B Questions and Answers for Health Professionals,â âHepatitis B Questions and Answers for the Public.â

    Mayo Clinic: âHepatitis B.â

    UpToDate: âHepatitis B virus: Screening and diagnosis.â

    CDC.

    HealthyPeople.gov: âHepatitis B in Pregnant Women: Screening.â

    Annals of Internal Medicine: âScreening for Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Nonpregnant Adolescents and Adults: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement.â

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    You Can Have It And Not Know It

    What is hepatitis B?

    Hepatitis B is a liver disease caused by the hepatitis B virus . HBV is far more infectious than HIV and can be prevented by a vaccine. People who have not been vaccinated may be at risk of getting infected.

    About 95 percent of adults will recover within 6 months of becoming infected and as a result will develop lifelong protection against it. The remaining 5 percent are unable to clear the virus and will become chronically infected. Chronic hepatitis B infection is treatable.

    It is estimated that less than 1 percent of Canada’s population is infected with either acute or chronic HBV. People who are infected before the age of 7 are at a higher risk of developing chronic infection. In 2011, the overall reported rate of acute hepatitis B infection in Canada was 0.6 reported cases per 100,000 people living in Canada.

    Why is hepatitis B a health concern?

    Many people infected with HBV do not know they have the virus because symptoms can take two to six months to appear and only about 50 percent of people develop symptoms. During this time, they can spread the infection to others. You may not know you have this infection until damage has already been done to your liver. Potential complications from chronic HBV infection include cirrhosis of the liver, liver failure, liver cancer and premature death.

    Why do I need my liver?

    How is hepatitis B spread?

    HBV is spread through contact with infected blood and body fluids including semen and vaginal fluid.

    Hepatitis In The Western Pacific

    Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. The condition can be self-limiting or can progress to fibrosis , cirrhosis or liver cancer. Hepatitis viruses are the most common cause of hepatitis in the world but other infections, toxic substances , and autoimmune diseases can also cause hepatitis.

    There are five main hepatitis viruses, referred to as types A, B, C, D and E. These 5 five types are of greatest concern because of the burden of illness and death they cause and the potential for outbreaks and epidemic spread.

    Hepatitis B and C infections lead to chronic liver disease in hundreds of millions of people. They are the most common causes of liver cirrhosis and liver cancer.

    Technical links

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    Who Are Hepatitis B Carriers

    Hepatitis B carriers are people who have the hepatitis B virus in their blood, even though they dont feel sick. Between 6% and 10% of those people whove been infected with the virus will become carriers and can infect others without knowing it. There are over 250 million people in the world who are carriers of HBV, with about 10% to 15% of the total located in India. Children are at the highest risk of becoming carriers. About 9 in 10 babies infected at birth become HBV carriers, and about half of children who are infected between birth and age 5 carry the virus. A blood test can tell you if you are a hepatitis B carrier.

    Prevent Hepatitis B Infections In Newborns

    Hepatitis B Reactivation with Hepatitis C Treatment

    If you are pregnant and have hepatitis B, talk with your doctor about lowering the risk that the infection will spread to your baby. Your doctor will check your virus levels during pregnancy. If virus levels are high, your doctor may recommend treatment during pregnancy to lower virus levels and reduce the chance that hepatitis B will spread to your baby. Your doctor may refer you to a liver specialist to find out if you need hepatitis B treatment and to check for liver damage.

    When it is time to give birth, tell the doctor and staff who deliver your baby that you have hepatitis B. A health care professional should give your baby the hepatitis B vaccine and HBIG right after birth. The vaccine and HBIG will greatly reduce the chance of your baby getting the infection.

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    How Can Hepatitis B Be Prevented

    A safe and effective vaccine to prevent hepatitis B is available. The hepatitis B vaccine is recommended for people in high-risk settings who have not already been infected and for infants who are born to infected mothers. It is recommended that all children and adolescents be vaccinated against hepatitis B along with their routine childhood immunizations beginning at birth. A special hepatitis B immune globulin is also available for people who are exposed to the virus. In the event of exposure to hepatitis B, consult a doctor or the local health department.

    What Are Clinical Trials For Hepatitis B

    Clinical trialsand other types of clinical studiesare part of medical research and involve people like you. When you volunteer to take part in a clinical study, you help doctors and researchers learn more about disease and improve health care for people in the future.

    Researchers are studying many aspects of hepatitis B, such as

    • progression of hepatitis B and long-term outcomes
    • new treatments for hepatitis B
    • prevention of reactivated or worsening hepatitis B in people receiving cancer treatment

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    How Do Doctors Treat The Complications Of Hepatitis B

    If chronic hepatitis B leads to cirrhosis, you should see a doctor who specializes in liver diseases. Doctors can treat the health problems related to cirrhosis with medicines, minor medical procedures, and surgery. If you have cirrhosis, you have an increased chance of liver cancer. Your doctor may order blood tests and an ultrasound or another type of imaging test to check for liver cancer.

    If chronic hepatitis B leads to liver failure or liver cancer, you may need a liver transplant.

    Treatment Options For Antiviral Resistant Pathogens

    Hepatitis B and hepatitis D virus- causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

    If a virus is not fully wiped out during a regimen of antivirals, treatment creates a bottleneck in the viral population that selects for resistance, and there is a chance that a resistant strain may repopulate the host. Viral treatment mechanisms must therefore account for the selection of resistant viruses.

    The most commonly used method for treating resistant viruses is combination therapy, which uses multiple antivirals in one treatment regimen. This is thought to decrease the likelihood that one mutation could cause antiviral resistance, as the antivirals in the cocktail target different stages of the viral life cycle. This is frequently used in retroviruses like HIV, but a number of studies have demonstrated its effectiveness against influenza A, as well. Viruses can also be screened for resistance to drugs before treatment is started. This minimizes exposure to unnecessary antivirals and ensures that an effective medication is being used. This may improve patient outcomes and could help detect new resistance mutations during routine scanning for known mutants. However, this has not been consistently implemented in treatment facilities at this time.

    Despite their successes, in the United States there exists plenty of stigma surrounding vaccines that cause people to be incompletely vaccinated. These “gaps” in vaccination result in unnecessary infection, death, and costs. There are two major reasons for incomplete vaccination:

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    What Happens To Your Liver When You Get Hepatitis B

    When the hepatitis B virus enters the body, it attacks liver cells. The liver cells then become swollen and inflamed and are unable to work properly.

    Most people exposed to hepatitis B experience an acute hepatitis B infection that causes acute hepatitis. During the acute infection, liver cells are sick and not working properly but the liver is still able to function. Healthcare providers will check blood work called liver function tests to monitor the livers progress. For most people, the liver will start to heal on its own over a period of months, and liver function tests will return to normal.

    For some people, damage to liver cells will continue. This damage is part of a chronic hepatitis B infection. When damage to the liver continues, a person can develop liver cancer as well as scarring of the liver, which is called cirrhosis.

    Can Strong Immune System Fight Hepatitis B

    In 90% of persons who become infected as adults with hepatitis B, the immune system successfully fights off the infection during the acute phase the virus is cleared from the body within 6 months, the liver heals completely, and the person becomes immune to hepatitis B infection for the rest of their life.

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