Interchangeability With Other Hepatitis B Vaccines
A controlled study demonstrated that completion of a course of immunization with 1 dose of ENGERIX-B at Month 6 following 2 doses of RECOMBIVAX HB at Months 0 and 1 produced a similar GMT to immunization with 3 doses of RECOMBIVAX HB at Months 0, 1, and 6 . Thus, ENGERIX-B can be used to complete a vaccination course initiated with RECOMBIVAX HB.8
Does The Hepatitis B Vaccine Have Side Effects
Some children will develop pain or soreness in the local area of the shot, and low-grade fever.
There is one extremely rare, but serious, side effect. About 1 out of every 600,000 doses of the hepatitis B vaccine will cause a severe allergic reaction, called anaphylaxis, with symptoms including swelling of the mouth, difficulty breathing, low blood pressure or shock. Anaphylaxis usually occurs within 15 minutes of receiving the vaccine. Although anaphylaxis can be treated, it is quite frightening. People should remain at the doctors office for about 15 minutes after getting the vaccine.
Although the hepatitis B vaccine is made in yeast cells, no one has ever been shown to be allergic to the yeast proteins contained in the hepatitis B vaccine .
Facts About Hepatitis B
- Two billion people, or one in three, have been infected with hepatitis B worldwide. Of these, about 260 million live with chronic hepatitis B.
- Each year about 900,000 people die from hepatitis B worldwide, and about 2,000 of these deaths occur in the United States.
- Hepatitis B is transmitted through blood and is 100 times more infectious than HIV. An estimated one billion infectious viruses are in one-fifth of a teaspoon of blood of an infected person, so exposure to even a minute amount, such as on a shared toothbrush can cause infection.
- Hepatitis B is sometimes referred to as the silent epidemic because most people who are infected do not experience any symptoms.
- Liver cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths throughout the world, behind lung, colorectal and stomach cancers.
- Almost half of liver cancers are caused by chronic infection with hepatitis B.
- The World Health Organization recommends the inclusion of hepatitis B vaccine in immunization programs of all countries in 2017, about 8 of 10 infants born throughout the world received three doses of hepatitis B vaccine.
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What Is The Hepatitis B/hepatitis A Vaccine What Is It For
Hepatitis A/B vaccine is a man-made combination vaccine containing inactivated hepatitis A virus strain and non-infectious hepatitis B virus surface antigen. Inactive Hepatitis A virus combined with hepatitis B antigens stimulates the immune system to develop immunity against hepatitis A and B virus infections. The FDA approved hepatitis A/B vaccine in May 2001.
What brand names are available for hepatitis B/hepatitis A vaccine?
Is hepatitis B/hepatitis A vaccine available as a generic drug?
Do I need a prescription for hepatitis B/hepatitis A vaccine?
What Other Drugs Will Affect Hepatitis A And B Vaccine
Before receiving this vaccine, tell the doctor about all other vaccines you have recently received.
Also tell the doctor if you have recently received drugs or treatments that can weaken the immune system, including:
an oral, nasal, inhaled, or injectable steroid medicine
medicines to treat or prevent organ transplant rejection.
If you are using any of these medications, you may not be able to receive the vaccine, or may need to wait until the other treatments are finished.
This list is not complete. Other drugs may interact with hepatitis A and B vaccine, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal products. Not all possible interactions are listed in this medication guide.
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Biologic Events Following Immunization
The antibodies produced after infection with hepatitis B virus or after administration of plasma-derived vaccine or recombinant vaccine are alike in terms of their ability to elicit protective determinants that are active against all subtypes of the virus . In the United States, hepatitis B recombinant vaccines are given as a three-dose series. This consists of two priming doses given 1 month apart this is followed by a third dose given 6 months after the first one . An alternative schedule, consisting of three priming doses at 1-month intervals and then a fourth dose 12 months after the first one, is approved for one vaccine . The priming doses induce detectable antibody to HBsAg in 70-85 percent of healthy adults and children, but they are of relatively low titer. The final dose induces adequate high-titer antibody in more than 90 percent of healthy adults under the age of 50 and 95 percent of children and infants . The immunogenicity and safety of hepatitis B vaccine in premature infants are less well defined . Studies show seroconversion rates similar to those observed with the plasma-derived vaccine licensed for use in the United States .
Studies of the immunogenicity of the recombinant vaccine show that, by the third dose, over 95 percent of healthy children and adults have responded by producing antibody. Infants and older individuals produce less antibody than young children and adults, which is the usual case for many vaccines.
Hepatitis B Vaccination Reactions
Mild Hep B vaccine side effects include soreness, redness, or swelling at the injection site, fever, and mild rash. Serious side effects of the hepatitis B vaccine are rare but can be very serious if they do occur. Many people who receive the hepatitis B vaccine, however, experience no problems.
The likelihood of suffering a severe and life-threatening allergic reaction to the hepatitis B vaccine is estimated at a million to one. Of course, there are millions of vaccinations each year, which means these kinds of reactions do happen to some individuals.
Possible severe reactions and diseases that have been associated with hepatitis B vaccine include:
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Rare Side Effects After Immunisation
There is a very small risk of a serious allergic reaction to any vaccine. This is why you are advised to stay at the clinic or medical surgery for at least 15 minutes following immunisation, in case further treatment is required.
If you think your child may be having a serious allergic reaction and you are no longer at the clinic where they were immunised, take them immediately to your doctor or to the nearest hospital, or call 000 for an ambulance.
Another rare side effect is the hypotonic-hyporesponsive episode . If they are experiencing HHE, a baby may be:
This may occur from one to 48 hours following vaccination. The whole episode may last from a few minutes to 36 hours.
If you think your child may be having an HHE episode, take them immediately to your doctor or to the nearest hospital.
Follow-up of children with HHE shows no long-term neurological or other side effects.
What Is Hepatitis B
Hepatitis B is a contagious liver disease caused by the hepatitis B virus. When a person is first infected with the virus, he or she can develop an acute infection. Acute hepatitis B refers to the first 6 months after someone is infected with the hepatitis B virus. This infection can range from a very mild illness with few or no symptoms to a serious condition requiring hospitalization. Some people are able to fight the infection and clear the virus.
For others, the infection remains and is chronic, or lifelong. Chronic hepatitis B refers to the infection when it remains active instead of getting better after 6 months. Over time, the infection can cause serious health problems, and even liver cancer.
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Why Is The Hepb Vaccine Recommended
People who dont know they’re infected can spread the hepatitis B virus. So it cant be avoided just by being careful. That’s why health experts recommend that all babies get the vaccine right from birth.
The HepB injection usually creates long-term immunity. Most infants who get the HepB series are protected from hepatitis B infection beyond childhood, into their adult years.
Eliminating the risk of infection also decreases risk for cirrhosis of the liver, chronic liver disease, and liver cancer.
What May Interact With This Medicine
- medicines that suppress your immune function like adalimumab, anakinra, infliximab
- medicines to treat cancer
- steroid medicines like prednisone or cortisone
This list may not describe all possible interactions. Give your health care provider a list of all the medicines, herbs, non-prescription drugs, or dietary supplements you use. Also tell them if you smoke, drink alcohol, or use illegal drugs. Some items may interact with your medicine.
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Complications Of Hepatitis B In Infants And Children
Mothers who are infected with hepatitis B can pass the virus to their children either through the womb or at the time of birth. Hepatitis B virus can also be spread through exposure of broken skin or mucous membranes to the blood or other body fluids of an infected person.
If newborn babies are quickly immunised with 2 vaccines, they can be protected from getting hepatitis B.
Many people who are infected with hepatitis B have no symptoms. Babies and children who are infected with hepatitis B are less likely than adults to have symptoms of infection, but are more likely to develop chronic hepatitis B.
A child who contracts chronic hepatitis B has an increased risk of developing liver disease and cancer later in life. A small proportion of adults who become infected with the hepatitis B virus develop a long-term hepatitis B infection.
What Are The Side Effects
The most common of the hepatitis B vaccine are mild and include:
- Low fever or,
- Sore arm from the shot.
Prepare for your child’s vaccine visit and learn about how you can:
- Research vaccines and ready your child before the visit
- Comfort your child during the appointment
- Care for your child after the shot
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What Are Common Side Effects
Of the children who have side effect of the hepatitis B vaccine, the most common is mild soreness where the shot was injected or a low fever. Adults are slightly more likely to experience these side effects.
The common side effects of Engerix-B® and Recombivax HB® include:
- Injection-site soreness, swelling, redness, or lump
- Runny nose
When To Delay Or Avoid Hepb Immunization
Doctors delay giving the vaccine to babies who weigh less than 4 pounds, 7 ounces at birth whose mothers do not have the virus in their blood. The baby will get the first dose at 1 month of age or when the baby is discharged from the hospital.
The vaccine is not recommended if your child:
- is currently sick, although simple colds or other minor illnesses should not prevent immunization
- had a serious allergic reaction after an earlier dose of the vaccine or is allergic to baker’s yeast
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Are Hepatitis B Virus Infections Easily Avoided
Large quantities of hepatitis B virus are present in the blood of people with hepatitis B in fact, as many as one billion infectious viruses can be found in a milliliter of blood from an infected individual. Therefore, hepatitis B virus is transmitted in the blood of infected individuals during activities that could result in exposure to blood, such as intravenous drug use, tattooing, or sex with people who are infected. However, it is also possible to catch hepatitis B virus through more casual contact, such as sharing washcloths, toothbrushes or razors. In each of these cases, unseen amounts of blood can contain enough viral particles to cause infection. In addition, because many people who are infected don’t know that they are infected, it is very hard to avoid the chance of getting infected with hepatitis B virus.
Which Drugs Or Supplements Interact With Hepatitis B/hepatitis A Vaccine
: Hepatitis A/B vaccine vaccines should not be used with medications and therapies that suppress the immune system such as adalimumab , belimumab , cyclosporine , azathioprine , irradiation, and high doses of steroids because suppressing the immune system reduces the effectiveness of hepatitis A/B vaccine.
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Side Effects Requiring Immediate Medical Attention
Along with its needed effects, hepatitis b adult vaccine may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention.
Check with your doctor immediately if any of the following side effects occur while taking hepatitis b adult vaccine:
- pain or discomfort in the arms, jaw, back, or neck
- sudden numbness and weakness in the arms and legs
A Look At Each Vaccine: Hepatitis B Vaccine
The hepatitis B vaccine is given to prevent the severe liver disease that can develop when children or adults are infected with hepatitis B virus. The hepatitis B vaccine is given as a series of three shots. The first dose is given within 24 hours of birth. The second dose is given one to two months after the first dose, and the third dose is given between 6 months and 18 months of age.
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What Is Hepatitis B Virus
Hepatitis B virus attacks the liver. Hepatitis B virus infections are known as the “silent epidemic” because many infected people don’t experience symptoms until decades later when they develop hepatitis , cirrhosis , or cancer of the liver . Every year in the United States about 22,000 new hepatitis B infections occur and about 2,000 people die from their infections.
Is There A Vaccine For Hepatitis B
Yes! A Hepatitis B vaccine is available for all age groups. Its a safe and effective vaccine recommended for all infants at birth and for children up to 18 years. Hepatitis B vaccination is also recommended for adults with diabetes, those at high risk for infection due to their jobs or lifestyle, or in certain countries of birth.
The Hepatitis B vaccine has been dubbed as one of the safest and most effective vaccines ever made. Its also known as the first anti-cancer vaccine as the virus it prevents against, Hepatitis B, is the leading cause of liver cancer worldwide.
For a more complete list of who should get vaccinated for Hepatitis B, please consult these guidelines from the CDC.
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Who Should Not Get The Hepatitis B Vaccine
Generally seen as a safe vaccine, there are some circumstances in which doctors advise against receiving the HBV vaccine. You shouldnt have the hepatitis B vaccine if:
- youve had a serious allergic reaction to a previous dose of the hepatitis B vaccine
- you have a history of hypersensitivity to yeast or to any other vaccine components
- youre experiencing a moderate or severe acute illness
If youre currently experiencing an illness, you should postpone receiving the vaccine until your condition has improved.
What Are The Important Side Effects Of Recombivax Hb
Common side effects of HBV vaccines include:
In healthy adults, injection site reactions and systemic adverse reactions were reported following 17% and 15% of the injections, respectively.
Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a vaccine cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another vaccine and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
In three clinical studies, 434 doses of Recombivax HB, 5 mcg, were administered to 147 healthy infants and children who were monitored for 5 days after each dose. Injection site reactions and systemic adverse reactions were reported following 0.2% and 10.4% of the injections, respectively. The most frequently reported systemic adverse reactions , in decreasing order of frequency, were
In a study that compared the three-dose regimen with the two-dose regimen of Recombivax HB in adolescents, the overall frequency of adverse reactions was generally similar.
In a group of studies, 3258 doses of Recombivax HB, 10 mcg, were administered to 1252 healthy adults who were monitored for 5 days after each dose. Injection site reactions and systemic adverse reactions were reported following 17% and 15% of the injections, respectively. The following adverse reactions were reported:
Incidence Equal To or Greater Than 1% of Injections
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What Is Hepatitis A And B Vaccine
Hepatitis A and B are serious diseases caused by virus.
Hepatitis A is spread through contact with the stool of a person infected with the hepatitis A virus. This usually occurs by eating food or drinking water that has become contaminated as a result of handling by an infected person.
Hepatitis B is spread through blood or bodily fluids, sexual contact or sharing IV drug needles with an infected person, or during childbirth when a baby is born to a mother who is infected.
The hepatitis A and B vaccine is used to help prevent these diseases in adults. The vaccine works by exposing you to a small dose of the virus, which causes the body to develop immunity to the disease. This vaccine will not treat an active infection that has already developed in the body.
This vaccine is recommended for adults with risk factors for getting hepatitis A or B, including:
Like any vaccine, the hepatitis A and B vaccine may not provide protection from disease in every person.