Friday, May 17, 2024

Risk Factors Of Hepatitis D

Symptoms Of Hepatitis D

Viral Hepatitis: Comparing Hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E
  • Have had sexual contact with someone who has hepatitis D
  • Work in health care or a related field
  • Are on dialysis
  • Are a man who has sex with men
  • Receive many blood transfusions or blood products

Additionally, babies born to a parent with hepatitis D are more likely to contract the disease. It’s rare for the disease to get passed from parent to child during birth, but it does happen.

Is Hepatitis B Curable

Theres currently no known cure for hepatitis B, but there are many ways you can prevent infection and avoid transmitting the virus to others.

The most effective and safe way to prevent hepatitis B is to get vaccinated. You can also use barrier methods, like condoms, when having sex and avoid sharing needles.

Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Test

A hepatitis B surface antigen test shows if you have an active infection. A positive result means you have hepatitis B and can transmit the virus to others. A negative result means you dont currently have hepatitis B.

This test doesnt distinguish between chronic and acute infection. This test is used together with other hepatitis B tests to determine the state of a hepatitis B infection.

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How Is The Diagnosis Of Viral Hepatitis Made

In acute hepatitis patients, diagnosis is promptly made based on their presenting symptoms, as mentioned earlier. In the case of chronic hepatitis patients, diagnosis becomes tricky due to the absence of symptoms or the presence of mild non-specific symptoms. The following investigations are suggested for establishing a diagnosis.

Blood Tests –

  • Liver Enzymes: Increased levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase can be found in the blood sample in patients with viral hepatitis. Apart from hepatic virus-induced liver disease, there are other causes like alcohol, medications, bacterial infection, etc., which can also cause a spike.

  • Viral Antibodies: To confirm that hepatitis is caused due to a virus, viral antibodies test is beneficial. Antibodies to hepatic viruses are identified in the blood of the infected individual.

  • Viral Proteins Test: This test is beneficial to identify the presence of the virus in chronic viral hepatitis patients wherein the virus genetic material and protein are detected in the blood.

How Can Viral Hepatitis Be Prevented

  • Avoid sharing needles for intravenous drug injections.

  • Avoid sharing razors, toothbrushes, and infected persons items.

  • Make sure the needle is changed before getting tattoos.

  • Drink bottled water if you are traveling.

  • Use physical contraceptives like condoms during sex.

  • More importantly, get vaccinated for hepatitis A and B. Vaccines for hepatitis A and B are available. Hepatitis B vaccine can also protect against hepatitis D. But hepatitis C does not have a vaccine till date.

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    What Is Viral Hepatitis

    The term hepatitis refers to inflammation of the liver. When the cause of this liver inflammation remains to be a viral infection, it is known as viral hepatitis. In viral hepatitis, the liver becomes swollen and painful as a response to the infection. Liver damage also occurs. Five viruses are known to cause viral hepatitis, and this condition is contagious, meaning it spreads from one person to another. The viruses that cause this infection are known as hepatic viruses. As of now, only five to seven viruses causing hepatitis have been identified, but there are several unidentified viruses causing hepatitis, which will sooner or later be discovered.

    Hepatitis Types And Liver Risks

    Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver. It can be caused by several viruses. The main types in the United States are A, B, and C. Type A symptoms are often similar to a stomach virus. But most cases resolve within a month. Hepatitis B and C can cause sudden illness. However, they can lead to liver cancer or a chronic infection that can lead to serious liver damage called cirrhosis.

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    Treatment And Medication Options For Hepatitis D

    Medications are not effective against acute hepatitis D, but fortunately, the acute infection tends to subside on its own.

    As for chronic hepatitis D, appropriate treatment depends on the phase of the disease and how severe the infection is.

    If a persons liver is severely damaged, a liver transplant may become necessary.

    While treatment options for hepatitis D are limited, new medications are being studied.

    Black Americans And Hepatitis B

    Hepatitis in 8 minutes! – Nursing Risk Factors, Symptoms, Complications, Diagnostics, Treatment

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention statistics show that Black and white Americans had the same rate of acute hepatitis B infection in 2018.

    CDC statistics also show that Black adults had a lower rate of chronic hepatitis B infection than white adults between 2013 and 2016, a much higher hepatitis Brelated death rate in 2016, and a lower HBV vaccination rate in 2015.

    The percentage of Black adolescents ages 13 to 17 who had ever received three or more doses of the hepatitis B vaccination was the same as the percentage of white adolescents in 2016.

    And the percentage of Black and white children ages 19 to 35 months who had received three doses of hepatitis B vaccine in 2016 was the same.

    Data collected in 2009 and 2010 from the Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health across the United States suggests that there are disparities in care when it comes to hepatitis B screening, referral to care, and the initiation of antiviral therapy.

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    What Are The Types Of Viral Hepatitis

    Based on the duration of symptoms, two types of viral hepatitis exist,

    • Acute Hepatitis – In the acute form of the disease, the infection and symptoms remain for a short period, after which the virus goes away due to the bodys ability to fight off the infection. They can also be asymptomatic, and there are rare instances wherein the condition can progress to severe forms of the disease, such as liver failure. When symptoms are present, they can resemble that of flu and appear between two weeks to six months after exposure. Symptoms of acute viral hepatitis include fatigue, fever, abdominal pain, dark-colored urine, pale stools, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, jaundice, and flu-like symptoms.

    • Chronic Hepatitis – The chronic form of the disease develops after an acute infection fails to resolve. Viral hepatitis is said to be chronic when the hepatic virus antigen and high titers of viral DNA or RNA persist in the serum for more than six months. While treatment may or may not be needed for acute hepatitis, chronic hepatitis necessarily requires treatment to prevent complications like liver cancer, cirrhosis , etc. It can take a decade for such complications to develop however, they cause life-threatening events. Most chronic hepatitis patients remain asymptomatic, when present, symptoms are non-specific, mild, and include indigestion and fatigue.

    Based on the types of hepatic viruses causing the disease, five types of viral hepatitis exist. They are,

    Hepatitis A –

    Hepatitis B –

    What Causes Hepatitis D

    The hepatitis D virus causes hepatitis D. The hepatitis D virus spreads through contact with an infected persons blood or other body fluids. Contact can occur by

    • sharing drug needles or other drug materials with an infected person
    • having unprotected sex with an infected person
    • getting an accidental stick with a needle that was used on an infected person

    The hepatitis D virus rarely spreads from mother to child during birth.

    You cant get hepatitis D from

    • being coughed on or sneezed on by an infected person
    • drinking water or eating food
    • hugging an infected person
    • shaking hands or holding hands with an infected person
    • sharing spoons, forks, and other eating utensils
    • sitting next to an infected person

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    How Is Hepatitis D Diagnosed

    Doctors may suspect a person has hepatitis D when the symptoms of acute hepatitis B are unusually severe, chronic hepatitis B gets worse much faster than usual, or when chronic hepatitis B suddenly gets much worse, which would indicate a superinfection.

    If hepatitis D is suspected, the doctor will take a medical history to understand factors that may have led to the infection. A physical exam will look for signs of liver damage, which could include jaundice, swelling in the feet or ankles, and swelling or tenderness in the abdomen.

    If its suspected that a person may have hepatitis D, a blood test that confirms the presence of the antibodies that are produced in response to the infection is required to confirm the diagnosis.

    There may be additional tests to determine if there is liver damage as a result of hepatitis B and hepatitis D. The tests can include the following:

    • An elastography, a special ultrasound that can measure the stiffness of the liver
    • A liver biopsy, in which a long needle is used to take a small piece of tissue that will be examined under a microscope to look for signs of disease or damage
    • A blood test to measure liver enzyme levels, elevated levels of which often indicate inflammation or damage to the liver cells

    What Vaccines Are Approved For Viral Hepatitis

    Prevalence, incidence, and risk factors for hepatitis C virus infection ...

    The United States Food and Drug Administration has approved the following vaccines

    All people with an increased risk of hepatitis are advised to get hepatitis vaccines. Most people recover from acute hepatitis with supportive care. Those with chronic hepatitis need to take medications with a doctor’s prescription for a period of six months and should get their liver condition assessed regularly to prevent complications.

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    Hispanic Americans And Hepatitis B

    Adult Hispanic Americans have a low rate of chronic hepatitis B infection, according to CDC statistics, and they die from hepatitis Brelated causes at the same rate as adult white Americans. Among adults ages 19 to 49, vaccination coverage was lower for Hispanic than for white Americans in 2015, but among Hispanic and white adolescents ages 1317 years and children age 19 to 35 months, it was the same in 2016.

    Seroprevalence And Risk Factors Of Hepatitis B C And D Virus Infection Amongst Patients With Features Of Hepatitis In A Referral Hospital In Botswana: A Cross

    Sajini Souda, Julius C. Mwita, Francesca Cainelli, Naledi B. Mannathoko, Motswedi Anderson, Sikhulile MoyoCC Attribution 4.0Submitted:

    About the author

    Full Text:


    Background: Viral hepatitis is a major global health problem. There is a paucity of data from Botswana on the seroprevalence of markers of hepatitis. The objective of the study was to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors of hepatitis B virus , hepatitis D virus and hepatitis C virus infections in patients with clinical features of hepatitis and/or altered liver function tests.

    Method: This cross-sectional study was done at Princess Marina Hospital in Gaborone, Botswana, from February 2015 to July 2016. It involved 328 adult patients with any of the following: jaundice, history of liver disease and/or increased serum aspartate aminotransferase , alanine aminotransferase , and serum bilirubin of > 2 times the upper limit of normal .

    Results: Active or chronic active hepatitis was identified in 46.7% of patients. Antibodies to HDV infection were detected in 4.6% of the HBsAg-positive patients and antibodies to HCV infection in 4.3% of the study patients. Immunity against HBV infection was noted in 34.5% of patients. Human immunodeficiency virus co-infection was self-reported by 42.7% of HBsAg-positive patients with known HIV status.



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    What Is Hepatitis D

    Hepatitis D is a viral infection that causes liver inflammation and damage. Inflammation is swelling that occurs when tissues of the body become injured or infected. Inflammation can damage organs.

    Viruses invade normal cells in your body. Many viruses cause infections that can spread from person to person.

    The hepatitis D virus is unusual because it can only infect you when you also have a hepatitis B virus infection. In this way, hepatitis D is a double infection. You can protect yourself from hepatitis D by protecting yourself from hepatitis B by getting the hepatitis B vaccine.

    Hepatitis D spreads the same way that hepatitis B spreads, through contact with an infected persons blood or other body fluids.

    The hepatitis D virus can cause an acute or chronic infection, or both.

    Causes And Risk Factors Of Hepatitis D

    Viral hepatitis: Pathology Review
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    Cirrhosis Of The Liver

    Chronic hepatitis D can lead to cirrhosis, which is when the liver slowly breaks down. Scar tissue replaces healthy liver tissue, which blocks the flow of blood. Gradually, the liver is able to function less and less.

    If cirrhosis is diagnosed early and the underlying cause is treated, the damage can be halted and in some rare cases, reversed.

    How Long Can You Live With Hepatitis B

    Most people who contract hepatitis B during adulthood fully recover within 1 to 3 months.

    People with chronic hepatitis B may have a higher risk of developing long-term liver problems, like cirrhosis or liver cancer, which require treatment and may be life threatening.

    Keep in mind that the risk of developing chronic hepatitis B is higher for babies and children, especially if they have not been vaccinated against the virus.

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    Is Hepatitis B Contagious

    Hepatitis B is highly contagious. Its transmitted through contact with blood and certain other bodily fluids. Although the virus can be found in saliva, its not transmitted through sharing utensils or kissing. Its also not transmitted through sneezing, coughing, or breastfeeding.

    Symptoms of hepatitis B may not appear for 3 months after exposure. Symptoms can last for several weeks.

    But even without symptoms, you can still transmit the infection to others. The virus can live outside the body and remains infectious for at least

    Hepatitis B is a highly contagious condition. Its associated with many serious complications, some of which can be life threatening.

    But there are many treatment options available and multiple ways you can prevent infection, including getting vaccinated.

    If you suspect you may have been exposed to hepatitis B, its important to talk with a doctor to prevent infection and determine the best course of treatment for you.

    Enhancing Healthcare Team Outcomes


    Hepatitis D only occurs in patients with hepatitis B. Thus, healthcare workers, including the nurse practitioner should consider serological testing for HDV in patients with hepatitis B. This can be obtained by detection of total anti-HDV antibody followed by confirmatory staining for HDAg in liver tissues and/or measurement of serum HDV RNA. As HBV replication is suppressed in chronic HDV infection, hepatitis B e-antibodies are typically present.

    As HDV depends on HBV, prevention can be achieved with hepatitis B vaccination. If the host is immune to HBV, they are subsequently protected against HDV. Patients who are at risk of contracting HDV infection should be encouraged to receive the hepatitis B vaccine.

    At the moment there is no specific treatment for hepatitis D but unlike hepatitis B, the former is a benign infection.

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    Who Is At Risk For Viral Hepatitis

    • Healthcare workers.

    • People with multiple sex partners.

    • Newborn baby of an infected mother.

    • Workers handling sewage and water treatment.

    • Drug abusers .

    • People receiving components of blood for bleeding disorders through blood transfusion.

    • People with HIV or AIDS .

    • People living in a community with compromised water and food sanitation.

    • People receiving long-term kidney dialysis.

    Signs And Symptoms Of Hepatitis D

    People who have acute hepatitis D usually have symptoms, which can include the following:

    • Fatigue and lethargy
    • Jaundice, which causes a yellowish tint to the whites of the eyes and skin
    • Discolored stools and urine
    • Pain over the liver, in the upper part of the abdomen

    In contrast, the majority of people with chronic hepatitis D will have few symptoms until complications develop. This could be several years after the initial infection. These symptoms can include the following:

    • Weakness and fatigue
    • Swelling of the ankles and abdomen
    • Itchy skin
    • Jaundice

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    What Complications Does Viral Hepatitis Cause

    Viral hepatitis in its acute form does not cause any serious complications. But when the infection resides for a long time, more than six months , it becomes chronic, which can later worsen to cause complications such as,

    • Liver cirrhosis.

    • Hepatitis D is treated with interferons and medicines for hepatitis B.

    • Hepatitis E is treated with Peginterferon alfa-2a and Ribavirin.

    Research And Statistics: How Many People Have Hepatitis D

    Hepatitis, Cholecystitis, Bariatric Surgery – Medical-Surgical (Med-Surg) – Gastrointestinal System

    Hepatitis D was first identified as a distinct form of hepatitis in 1977. A systematic review and meta-analysis published on April 23, 2020, in the Journal of Hepatology estimated its worldwide prevalence at 12 million people. 30220-8/fulltext” rel=”nofollow”> 14)

    Hepatitis D is rare in the United States, and most cases occur among people who migrate or travel to the United States from countries that have a higher rate of HDV.

    Hepatitis D is not a nationally notifiable condition, so the actual number of people who have it is unknown.

    Study results published in Clinical Infectious Diseases found that approximately 0.11 percent of the more than 21,000 subjects had antibodies, which would indicate they had hepatitis D infection. That would correspond to approximately 357,000 people in the United States with a past or ongoing HDV infection.

    The researchers found that the prevalence of hepatitis D is highest in Asian Americans and people born outside the United States.

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