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Is Hepatitis B Sexually Transmitted Disease

How Many People Have Hepatitis B

What is Hepatitis B? Signs, Symptoms, #Hepatitis Transmission and How to get #Tested

In the United States, an estimated 880,000 to 1.89 million people are chronically infected with HBV. New cases of HBV infection in the United States had been decreasing until 2012. Since that time, reported cases of acute hepatitis B have been fluctuating around 3,000 cases per year. In 2020, 2,157 cases of acute hepatitis B were reported however, because of low case detection and reporting, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that there were 14,000 acute hepatitis B infections. The rate of acute cases of HBV decreased by 32% after 2019 which may be related to the disruptions of the COVID-19 pandemic. For the most recent surveillance data visit CDC Viral Hepatitis Surveillance.

Globally, HBV is the most common blood-borne infection with an estimated 296 million people infected according to the World Health Organization .

Could I Give It To Other People

Yes. As long as you carry the virus, you can infect others. You may pass it on to your sex partner, to those who live in close contact with you, and to those who share your needles for injecting drugs. All of these contacts should be examined by a doctor. If they are not yet infected, they should be vaccinated.

Pregnant women who are carriers may pass hepatitis B on to their babies around the time of birth. Most infected infants become carriers. A pregnant woman should have a test for hepatitis B at her first visit to a doctor. If she is a carrier, the infant can be vaccinated at birth to protect against infection.

Who Is Most Affected

In the United States, rates of new HBV infections are highest among adults aged 30-59 years, reflecting low hepatitis B vaccination coverage among adults at risk. The most common risk factor among people with new HBV infections is injecting drugs, related to the opioid crisis and other drug use.

The highest rates of chronic hepatitis B infection in the United States occur among foreign-born individuals, especially people born in Asia, the Pacific Islands, and Africa. Approximately 70% of cases in the United States are among people who were born outside of the United States. CDC developed this map of the geographic distribution of hepatitis B around the world – PDF. Other groups who have higher rates of chronic HBV infection include people who inject drugs and men who have sex with men.

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Is Hepatitis B Curable

Theres currently no known cure for hepatitis B, but there are many ways you can prevent infection and avoid transmitting the virus to others.

The most effective and safe way to prevent hepatitis B is to get vaccinated. You can also use barrier methods, like condoms, when having sex and avoid sharing needles.

How Can You Prevent Hepatitis B And Hepatitis C

Hepatitis Virus Structure. Viral Infection Hepatitis. Sexually ...

Hepatitis B: Vaccination is the best way to prevent all the ways that hepatitis B is transmitted. People with HIV who do not have active HBV infection should be vaccinated against it. The hepatitis B vaccine is now recommended for all infants, children and adults ages 19-59, as well as adults ages 60+ at high risk for infection. There is a 3-dose series of hepatitis B vaccine given over 6 months, and a 2-dose series given over 1 month. Additionally, there is a 2-dose combination vaccine that protects against both hepatitis A and hepatitis B.

Hepatitis C: No vaccine exists for HCV and no effective pre- or post-exposure prophylaxis is available. Injection drug use is one of the risk factors for hepatitis C. For people who inject drugs, the best way to prevent hepatitis C infection is to always use new, sterile needles or syringes, and never reuse or share needles or syringes, water, or other drug preparation equipment. Community-based prevention programs, such as medication-assisted treatment and syringe services programs provide support and services aimed at preventing and reducing the transmission of HCV. Although the risk of sexual transmission of HCV is considered to be low, avoiding unprotected sexual exposure by using condoms has been shown to reduce the chance of sexually transmitted infections.

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Which Stis Have Vaccines

Some STIs, such as gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and syphilis, are caused by bacteria. They are usually effectively treated with antibiotics, although many patients do not know that they are infective and can spread the disease to other partners. The availability of treatments means vaccines against these diseases are not a top priority, although the increased resistance of gonorrhea to antibiotics may lead to a shift in priorities.

Viral STIs are often highly persistent despite current therapeutic options or have no acceptable treatment available. Therefore, vaccines for certain viral STIs are in use, and others are in development.

What Happens After A Hepatitis B Infection

Some people carry the virus in their bodies and are contagious for the rest of their lives. They should not drink alcohol, and should check with their doctor before taking any medicines to make sure these won’t cause more liver damage.

Anyone who has ever tested positive for hepatitis B cannot be a blood donor.

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Hepatitis B And Pregnancy

Hepatitis B can be transmitted from a birthing parent to a newborn infant. This is because the newborn is exposed to blood and bodily fluids during delivery.

In fact, 90% of mothers with an acute hepatitis B infection and 10% to 20% of mothers with chronic hepatitis B will transmit the virus to their newborn, estimates the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.

For this reason, birthing parents are routinely screened for hepatitis B during each pregnancy.

Additionally, the hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immune globulin are both administered to infants with an HBV-positive birthing parent within of birth to prevent infection.

According to the

  • people with hepatitis C infection
  • men who have sex with men
  • people with multiple sexual partners
  • people who are seeking treatment for a sexually transmitted infections
  • people with current or recent injection drug use
  • family members or sexual partners of those with hepatitis B
  • people with chronic liver disease
  • people traveling to areas with high rates of hepatitis B
  • people on maintenance dialysis
  • people who are incarcerated

The hepatitis B vaccine is usually administered in three shots, given 1 month and 6 months after the first dose. Another recently approved vaccine is completed in two doses spaced 1 month apart.

Why Is The Hepatitis B Vaccine Important

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Because of the vaccine, cases of acute hepatitis B have decreased by a lot in the United States. But chronic hepatitis B is still common up to 2.2 million people in the United States have it. Chronic hepatitis B can lead to serious liver problems and even death.

Getting vaccinated is the best way to prevent hepatitis B.

Hepatitis B is a liver disease caused by a virus. There are 2 types of hepatitis B:

  • Acute hepatitis B
  • Chronic hepatitis B

Many children who get acute hepatitis B dont have any symptoms, but most adults do. Symptoms may include:

  • Dark pee or clay-colored poop
  • Pain in the muscles, joints, and stomach

Acute hepatitis B symptoms usually last a few weeks but they can last as long as 6 months.

If the acute hepatitis B infection does not go away after 6 months, its considered a chronic hepatitis B infection. Most people who have chronic hepatitis B dont have symptoms at first. But chronic hepatitis B is a lifelong illness that can lead to serious and possibly deadly liver problems, like:

  • Has sex with a person who has hepatitis B
  • Touches the blood or open sores of a person who has hepatitis B

All children and most adults need to get the hepatitis B vaccine.

Infants and children

All children need to get the hepatitis B vaccine as part of their routine vaccine schedule.

Children need 3 doses of the vaccine at the following ages:

  • Birth for the first dose
  • 1 through 2 months for the second dose
  • 6 through 18 months for the third dose

Adults

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What Problems Can Hepatitis B Cause

Hepatitis B is a serious infection. It can lead to cirrhosis of the liver, liver failure, or liver cancer, which can cause severe illness and even death.

If a pregnant woman has the hepatitis B virus, her baby has a very high chance of having it unless the baby gets a special immune injection and the first dose of hepatitis B vaccine at birth.

Sometimes, HBV doesn’t cause symptoms until a person has had the infection for a while. At that stage, the person already might have more serious problems, such as liver damage.

How Is Hepatitis B Diagnosed

If you think you may have hepatitis B or you might have been exposed to the virus through sex or drug use, see your doctor or gynecologist to get tested. The blood test also can tell whether someone has an acute infection or a chronic infection. Let the doctor know the best way to reach you confidentially with test results.

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What If Im Pregnant And Have Hepatitis B

Pregnant woman with hepatitis B can pass the virus on to their unborn baby. This is why women are tested for hepatitis B as part of prenatal care. In almost all cases, an infection can be prevented if the infant receives the recommended vaccinations in time.

Infants infected at birth are more likely to develop chronic hepatitis B and go on to develop liver complications. Its important to talk to your doctor if you have any questions and follow any advice they give.

What Are The Symptoms Of Hepatitis B

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Many people with hepatitis B dont have any symptoms. If you do get symptoms you may not notice them until two or three months after infection. You can pass the virus on to others even if you dont have symptoms.

There are two types of infection acute and chronic.

Acute symptoms can include:

  • flu-like symptoms, including tiredness, fever and aches and pains

  • feeling and/or being sick

  • yellowing of the skin and eyes

  • pale, grey coloured faeces .

People who cant fight off acute infection after six months can go on to develop chronic hepatitis B. These include babies, young children and people with a weakened immune system because of HIV. People with chronic hepatitis B are at higher risk of liver failure, liver disease and cancer of the liver.

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Data Synthesis And Analysis

We used PRs as the measure of association between HBV infection andSTIs. In addition to the few studies that provided PRs directly, studies were included if PRs could be constructed from the reporteddata. When adjusted measures were provided, typically as ORs, we used adjustedmeasures rather than crude measures. However, when adjusted measures were notreported, but data were available to construct unadjusted PRs from 2 Ã 2data we did so, using Open-Epiâs 2 Ã 2 table function . â2 Ã 2 dataârefers to the number of HBV negative and HBV positive cases for both STInegative and STI positive groups. We used 2 Ã 2 data even if unadjustedORs were available in order to keep consistent and precise methods. We convertedboth adjusted ORs and unadjusted ORs when 2 Ã 2 data were unavailable toPRs using the formula suggested by Zhang and Yu ,

where, P0 is the prevalence of the outcome ofinterest in the unexposed group .

We used Comprehensive Meta Analysis⢠software to perform the meta-analysis. We used a random effects modelbecause included studies were diverse in design, setting, and population .

Hepatitis B Prevalence Among Persons With Stis

Among the 13 PRs that incorporated HBsAg, we derived 11 values forhepatitis B prevalence among persons with STIs finding that the medianprevalence 4.17%, and ranged from 0.91% among first-timeblood donors in the U.S. for current syphilis to 33.2% among MSM in the U.S. forcurrent unspecified STIs . See Table 1.

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Sexual Transmission And Viral Hepatitis

Certain adults who are sexually active should be vaccinated against hepatitis B.

CDC and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommend hepatitis B vaccination for

  • sexually active people with more than one sex partner during the previous 6 months
  • people seeking evaluation or treatment for a sexually transmitted disease
  • sex partners of people with hepatitis B and
  • men who have sex with men .

CDC recommends one-time hepatitis C testing of all adults and regular testing for people with risk factors.

Hiv And Hbv Coinfection

How Is Hepatitis Transmitted?

About 2% of people with HIV in the United States are coinfected with HBV both infections have similar routes of transmission. People with HIV are at greater risk for complications and death from HBV infection. All people with HIV are recommended to be tested for HBV, and if susceptible, are further recommended to receive the hepatitis B vaccination or, if chronically infected, evaluated for treatment to prevent liver disease and liver cancer. For more information about HIV and HBV coinfection, visit HIV.govâs pages about hepatitis B and HIV coinfection.

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How Is Hepatitis B Treated

Treatment for hepatitis B depends on how long you have had the virus.

There is no specific treatment for acute hepatitis B, and most people recover within one to two months. Usually, you can manage symptoms at home with plenty of rest and painkillers if necessary. Most people make a full recovery from acute hepatitis B.

If you develop chronic hepatitis B, you will be given treatment to help some of the symptoms. This will also reduce the risk of liver damage and liver cancer. Treatment keeps the virus under control but cannot cure chronic hepatitis B. Some people will need lifelong treatment.

How Are Hepatitis B And Hepatitis C Spread From Person To Person

Like HIV, the hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses spread:

  • Perinatally: Pregnant people can pass these infections to their infants. HIV-HCV coinfection increases the risk of passing on hepatitis C to the baby.
  • Sexually: Both viruses can also be transmitted sexually, but HBV is much more likely than HCV to be transmitted sexually. Sexual transmission of HCV is most likely to happen among gay and bisexual men who have HIV.

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What Is The Hepatitis B Vaccine

A vaccine to protect against infection is available for hepatitis B. It requires a series of three shots provided by a healthcare provider over several months. You need all three shots for it to be effective.

Most babies now get the hepatitis B vaccine from their healthcare provider as a regular part of their checkups.

How To Prevent Transmission

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs)

Between 2% and 6% of adults infected with hepatitis B virus will develop chronic hepatitis B. Chronic hepatitis B can lead to liver failure and liver cancer, so protecting yourself is important.

The hepatitis B vaccine is safe for almost everyone and about 95% effective for providing long-term protection against hepatitis B infection.

While anyone can benefit from the vaccine, people who are at a greater risk of being exposed to the virusbecause of their work, lifestyle or medical historyare strongly encouraged to be immunized. In many countries, babies born to infected mothers get vaccinated at birth. All babies born in the United States are routinely vaccinated.

Hepatitis B immune globulin , is another way to prevent hepatitis B infection in babies born to infected mothers or after exposure to the virus. This uses concentrated antibodies to provide immediate protection. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, it is given as a shot and can provide short-term protection against hepatitis B.

Because the hepatitis B vaccine does not protect against HIV, hepatitis C or other diseases spread through sex and contact with blood, it is still important to keep using basic protective strategies. Practicing safer sex and not sharing needles are recommendedeven if you’re immune to hepatitis B.

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How Is Hepatitis B Prevented

Testing & Vaccination

  • The hepatitis B vaccine offers excellent protection against HBV. The vaccine is safe and highly effective. Vaccination consists of 3 doses of vaccine over the course of 6 months. Protection lasts for 20 years to life.
  • The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that all children should receive hepatitis B vaccine starting at birth. .
  • The CDC recommends hepatitis B vaccine for persons traveling to countries where HBV is common .
  • If you have one or more risk factors for hepatitis B infection, you should get a simple HBV blood test. The blood test will determine whether you are:
  • immune to hepatitis B or
  • susceptible to hepatitis B and need vaccination or
  • infected with hepatitis B and need further evaluation by a physician
  • The basic test for acute HBV infection is called the Hepatitis B Core IgM Antibody test. People who have acute hepatitis B show positive IgM antibodies on this test.
  • Perinatal Hepatitis

    • California law requires testing of all pregnant women for hepatitis B infection
    • If the mother is HBV-infected, she will pass the infection to the baby during the birth process, unless the baby gets immunized within hours of birth
    • Giving the infant HBIG and HBV vaccine right away will reliably prevent infection of the infant
    • Other family members should best tested for hepatitis B too, and given vaccine if they are not already infected or immune

    Healthy Habits

    After Exposure to Hepatitis B

    What Is Hepatitis B

    Hepatitis B, sometimes called Hep B or HBV, is part of a group of hepatitis viruses that attack the liver. For some people the infection becomes chronic, meaning it lasts more than six months. People with chronic hepatitis B have a higher chance of liver damage.

    Most adults with hepatitis B make a full recovery, even if their symptoms are severe. Babies and children are more likely to develop a long-lasting hepatitis B infection.

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