Thursday, June 16, 2022

How Long Can Someone Live With Hepatitis C

Hepatitis C Will Go Away On Its Own Wont It

Living with hepatitis

Two types of hepatitis C exist. The first, acute hepatitis C, is a short-term infection. The main complication of acute hepatitis C is that it will develop into long-term, or chronic, hepatitis C.

The early stages of a hepatitis C infection may cause few symptoms. During this phase, you may not even know you have an infection.

About 30 percent of people who develop an acute hepatitis C infection will be able to clear the virus without treatment. Once it has developed into chronic hepatitis C, the virus will need treatment before it will go away.

Doctors arent sure why some peoples immune systems can eliminate the virus and some cant. Treatment for acute hepatitis C is the same as chronic hepatitis C. Treatment reduces the risk of an acute hepatitis C infection turning into a chronic one.

What Are The Symptoms Of Hepatitis C

During the acute phase most persons have no symptoms or might experience a mild illness. Symptoms of acute HCV infection, when present, may include:

  • Jaundice
  • Dark-colored urine, light-colored stools
  • Diarrhea
  • Fever

During the chronic phase hepatitis C usually progresses silently, with no symptoms at all during the first 10-20 years. Signs of severe liver scarring may include:

  • Ascites
  • Star-shaped vein pattern developing on the swollen belly
  • Jaundice
  • Itching
  • Easy bruising and bleeding

Because symptoms of hepatitis C are usually absent, persons with risk for HCV infection should be tested. The blood test for hepatitis C infection is called the hepatitis C antibody test. People who have hepatitis C infection will show positive antibodies on this test. In many cases, it is necessary to confirm a positive hepatitis C antibody test with a more specific test, such as a test for HCV virus RNA.

If you think you have hepatitis C or have risk for hepatitis C, you should contact your doctor. The Communicable Disease Control Unit may be able to help answer your questions.

Can I Drink Alcohol Once In A While If I Have Hepatitis C

Alcohol can clearly contribute to worsening liver disease. You must discuss with your health care provider if any amount of alcohol is safe for you.

Alcohol can cause inflammation and scarring in the liver. If you have any underlying liver condition, such as hepatitis C or hepatitis B or damage from long-term alcohol use, your liver will be more sensitive to alcohol. When you have hepatitis C virus, alcohol on top of the hepatitis C can cause the inflammation and scarring to be worse, and overall damage to the liver may happen much faster when you drink alcohol.

Here is some helpful information about alcohol and hepatitis:

  • No one knows exactly what amount of alcohol is “safe” when you have hepatitis C. Some small amounts of alcohol may be safe while you have hepatitis C and have mild damage in the liver, but if you have cirrhosis, then no amount of alcohol is safe and you should not drink at all.
  • All forms of alcohol can be damaging. In other words, beer and wine are not “safer” than whiskey.
  • If you have severe scarring , then you should not drink any alcohol at all.
  • If you are awaiting a transplant, you also cannot drink any alcohol at all.
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    How Is Hepatitis C Diagnosed

    In addition to taking your medical history and performing a physical exam to look for signs of liver damage, your doctor will use the results of certain blood tests to make a diagnosis.

    An initial blood test screens for HCV antibodies proteins your body produces in reaction to the presence of the hepatitis virus. If the result is negative, it means youve never had HCV in your blood. If the result is positive, you were exposed to HCV at some point.

    If the antibody test is positive, your doctor will conduct another blood test that looks for the RNA of HCV in your blood. There are qualitative HCV RNA tests and quantitative ones. A qualitative test determines the presence or absence of the virus in your body, while the quantitative RNA test measures the viral load, or how much virus is in the blood.

    Another blood test will also be used to determine which genotype of HCV you have, as that will affect your treatment plan.

    Your doctor may conduct other blood tests to assess liver damage.

    How Do People Get Hepatitis C

    How long does hepatitis C live outside the body?

    Hepatitis C virus is found in the blood of people with HCV infection. It enters the body through blood-to-blood contact.

    Until reliable blood tests for HCV were developed , people usually got hepatitis C from blood products and blood transfusions. Now that blood and blood products are tested for HCV, this is no longer the typical means of infection.

    Currently, people usually get hepatitis C by sharing needles for injection drug use. An HCV-infected woman can pass the infection to her baby during birth. It is also possible to get hepatitis C from an infected person through sexual contact, an accidental needlestick with a contaminated needle, or improperly sterilized medical, acupuncture, piercing, or tattooing equipment.

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    If I Have Hepatitis C Infection Does This Mean I Am Going To Have Other Health Problems

    Hepatitis C can cause scarring of the liver leading to cirrhosis and liver cancer. Other conditions have also been linked to hepatitis C and are known as extra-hepatic manifestations of hepatitis C. They include diabetes mellitus, arthritis, hypothyroid, and aplastic anemia among other conditions. Talk to your provider for more information.

    Diagnosis Of Hepatitis C

    If you are at risk of hepatitis C infection, or think you may have been exposed to hepatitis C in the past, see your doctor for an assessment of your liver health. This will include blood tests and possibly a non-invasive test for liver damage .

    There are 2 blood tests used to diagnose hepatitis C. Usually these can be done at the same time but sometimes they will be done separately.

    The first test known as a hepatitis C antibody test can tell you whether you have ever been exposed to hepatitis C.

    It may take 2 to 3 months from the time of infection until a blood test can detect antibodies to hepatitis C, so there is a window period during which you cannot tell if you are or have been infected. In this time, take precautions to prevent the potential spread of the virus.

    The second test is called hepatitis C PCR, which will be done if the antibody test is positive. This determines if the virus is still present in your blood or liver or if you have already cleared the infection.

    If you have cleared the virus or had successful treatment to cure it, the PCR test will be negative.

    A liver ultrasound or Fibroscan can also be performed to assess if you have any liver damage.

    If your doctor is inexperienced in diagnosing hepatitis C you can call the LiverLine on for information, and to find a GP who can help you.

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    But Even If You’ve Been Cured It Can Have Lifelong Health Implications

    “Hepatitis C is a lot more than just a liver disease,” Reau says. “It has been associated with many medical conditions, such as an increased risk of developing diabetes, kidney disease and cancer.”

    While curing hepatitis C significantly reduces the risk of serious complications, like liver failure, liver cancer and the need for transplantation, it doesn’t completely eliminate the health risks associated with the disease.

    “Hep C is linked to scarring of the liver or cirrhosis and the more scar tissue that develops, the greater the likelihood of complications,” Reau says. “If there is a lot of scarring, you will need lifelong monitoring.”

    Reau also recommends leading a healthy lifestyle to help prevent re-infection and further liver damage: Limit alcohol consumption, control your weight, avoid high-risk activities and manage diabetes if you have it.

    How Do I Tell Someone I Have Hepatitis C

    Treating Hepatitis C

    Informing someone that you have hepatitis C can be hard. Most people know little about this disease. You can start with how you found out about your diagnosis. It helps to be prepared with educational materials on HCV, and to be aware of the ways that people can and cannot be infected. For example, it is very rare for HCV to be transmitted during sex. Be sure to tell anyone who may be directly affected, such as:

  • People you have shared needles with
  • Household members
  • Friends and family members you can count on for support. It’s okay to ask that they keep this information private.
  • You may want to encourage others to be tested for HCV if they have similar risk factors.

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    Who Is Most At Risk Of Contracting Hepatitis C

    You have a high risk of contracting hepatitis C if you:

    • use or have used injection drugs even if it was just once or many years ago
    • have received blood or blood products or an organ transplant before July 1990 in Canada
    • have been in jail or
    • have been injected or scratched during vaccination, surgery, blood transfusion or a religious/ceremonial ritual in regions where hepatitis C is common.

    You have a high moderate risk of contracting hepatitis C if you:

    • have tattoos or body piercing
    • have multiple sexual partners
    • have a sexually transmitted infection , including HIV or lymphogranuloma venereum
    • have experienced traumatic sex or rough sex or have used sex toys or fisting that can tear body tissue
    • have vaginal sex during menstruation
    • have received a kidney treatment
    • have received an accidental injury from a needle or syringe
    • have another infectious disease
    • were born to a hepatitis C infected mother or
    • have a sexual partner infected with hepatitis C.

    Hepatitis C is NOT passed from person to person by:

    • coughing, sneezing
    • breastfeeding unless your nipples are cracked and bleeding or
    • oral sex, unless blood is present.

    When To Seek Medical Advice

    See your GP if you persistently have any of the later symptoms above, or if they keep returning. They may recommend having a blood test that can check for hepatitis C. Read more about diagnosing hepatitis C.

    None of the symptoms above mean you definitely have hepatitis C, but it’s important to get them checked out.

    You should also speak to your GP about getting tested if there’s a risk you’re infected, even if you don’t have any symptoms. This particularly includes people who inject drugs or have done so in the past.

    Read about the causes of hepatitis C for more information about who’s at risk of having the infection.

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    It’s Different Than Hepatitis A And B

    Each form of hepatitis has its own specific virus that spreads and is treated differently. “Hepatitis simply means inflammation of the liver, or that the virus has an affinity for hurting the liver,” Reau says.

    • Hepatitis A is an acute, short-term infection that often does not require treatment.
    • Hepatitis B hides deep in the body and, like hepatitis C, is treated in a variety of ways, from antiviral medications to liver transplants.

    “The viruses are different, but all of them should be taken very seriously since they can lead to significant liver disease and even death,” she adds.

    Will The Baby Be Infected If The Mother Or Father Has Hepatitis C

    Hepatitis C treatment for HIV/HCV co

    The baby’s risk of becoming infected with hepatitis C in the womb varies, depending on whether the parent with hepatitis C is the father or the mother.

    If the mother is infected, whether or not the father is infected, there is a 5% chance that the baby will be born with hepatitis C. The risk is the same regardless of whether the birth occurs by vaginal delivery or by cesarean section. The risk is higher if the mother is also living with HIV.

    If the father has hepatitis C but the mother does not, the baby cannot become infected because a father cannot pass the virus directly to a baby. If the father first passes the virus to the mother through sex, then the baby possibly could be infected by the mother. However, the chance of the virus being transmitted both from father to mother and then from mother to baby is almost zero.

    All children born to HCV-infected women should be tested for HCV infection. Testing is recommended using an antibody-based test at or after 18 months of age. Approximately 25-50 % infants with hepatitis C will clear the infection without any medical help by age 4. For those who become chronically infected, most have no symptoms .

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    Testing For Hepatitis C

    Hepatitis C is usually diagnosed using 2 blood tests: the antibody test and the PCR test. These can be as part of a routine blood test or are often combined as a dried blood spot test. The dried blood spot test is similar to a blood sugar test in pricking the finger to get a blood spot that is put on a testing card. This is then sent to a laboratory to be tested.

    Another similar test is an antigen test, which if used can often get the results back in 90 minutes. This is very expensive and not many services have access to the machine needed.

    Your Doctor Will Work With You To Choose A Treatment

    Treatment for hepatitis C keeps changing quickly. The standard treatment was typically interferon along with other drugs — often ribavirin.

    But many people have a hard time with interferonâs side effects, which include fatigue, fever, chills, and depression. Treatment now centers on direct acting antiviral drugs . These medicines are highly effective for most people with hepatitis C and are interferon-free and often ribavirin-free. This means they typically have fewer side effects. The treatments are often simpler, with fewer pills for a shorter amount of time. You can get DAAs as either single drugs or combined with other medicines in one pill.

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    Can I Get Reinfected With Hepatitis C

    If you become infected with hepatitis C infection and then clear the virus , yes, it is possible for you to become infected again.

    The chance of another infection with hepatitis C is much, much less than the chance of a first-time infection, but it is not impossible. It has happened in people who continue to use injection drugs, and some studies suggest that it happens even more often in people who are also HIV positive.

    In other words, having had hepatitis C once does not make you “immune” to getting hepatitis C again.

    The best way to avoid reinfection is to reduce risky behaviors that can result in exposure to the hepatitis C virus: Do not use injection drugs, do not share needles for any reason, avoid blood-to-blood exposures with others, and use condoms if you are sexually active with a new partner or with a partner who has used injection drugs.

    The research in this area is ongoing, and we will continue to learn more about this very important topic. But for now, preventing re-exposure to the hepatitis C virus is the only sure way of avoiding infection and reinfection with hepatitis C.

    Does Treatment For Hepatitis C Always Work

    Hepatitis C Can Be Cured

    Treatments for this virus have improved dramatically in recent decades. Older treatments relied on strengthening the bodys immune system and not attacking the virus directly. Newer medicines, however, work directly on the viruss cells.

    Todays treatments can virtually cure hepatitis C. Once you complete treatment, your viral load will be checked regularly. If the virus is still undetectable in your blood after three months, youre considered cured of hepatitis C.

    15 to 25 percent of people who get hepatitis C will eventually clear the virus from their body entirely. This can be done through treatment, or the body can spontaneously eliminate the virus.

    Having the hepatitis C virus once doesnt protect you against contracting it again. However, if you encounter the virus in the future, your risk for infected again is dramatically lower because of your previous infection. The best way to avoid being infected again is to reduce behaviors that put you at risk.

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    Who Can Be Treated For Hepatitis C

    Treatment decisions should be made by both you and your provider. Current treatments for hepatitis C are very successful and can cure most people of the virus.

  • Treatment regimens exist for all genotypes.
  • Treatment regimens exist for HCV-HIV coinfection.
  • Treatment regimens exist for all stages of disease .
  • Treatment regimens exist for patients who have taken treatment in the past but were not successful.
  • Prevention Is The Best Medicine

    Even though hepatitis C rarely spreads within a household, if you or a family member have the disease, it’s wise to take precautions to prevent its spread especially if anyone in your home is immune compromised, or has cuts or open sores that increase the risk of infection.

    In general, use these common sense preventive tips:

    • Unless you are in a long-term, monogamous relationship, practice safe sex.
    • Clean up spilled or dried blood with a bleach-based cleaning solution and wear rubber gloves.
    • Do not share razors.
    • Do not share toothbrushes. “Though hepatitis C is not transmitted through saliva, there might be blood on the toothbrush,” Reau says.

    Note that hepatitis C is not transmitted by sharing eating utensils, hugging, kissing, coughing or sneezing.

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    Liver Assessment Before Treatment

    Blood tests can assess the state of your liver. Your healthcare provider can calculate an APRI score, which can rule out the presence of liver damage in many people. These people can be treated immediately by their GPs. Some people will need to be referred to their local hepatitis C service for a fibroscan.

    Everyone should have a fibroscan before starting hepatitis C treatment. It’s important to know how much scar tissue or damage is present. If you have mild or moderate scarring in the liver, your GP can supervise your treatment. After successful treatment no further follow-up is needed. Scar tissue in the liver will reduce over time.

    If severe scar tissue is present in the liver, you should be cared for by a specialist clinic. After treatment you should stay under specialist follow-up because there is a risk of liver cancer , even many years after the virus has been cured.

    What happens after treatment?

    Being cured of the hepatitis C virus means having a sustained virological response , which is when the virus can’t be detected three months after treatment.

    This is a complete cure from hepatitis C, as being free of the virus three months after treatment means it is unlikely the virus will return. However, you are not immune to hepatitis C and you can be reinfected if you’re exposed to the virus again.

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