Friday, February 3, 2023

How Do You Diagnose Autoimmune Hepatitis

Serum Proteins And Immunoglobulins

Autoimmune hepatitis – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment & pathology

An immunoglobulin G -predominant polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia is a common finding in patients with untreated autoimmune hepatitis. Gamma globulin values typically range from 3 to 4 g/dL and frequently are as high as 5-6 g/dL. Cases of hyperviscosity syndrome secondary to high IgG levels have been reported. Autoimmune hepatitis is an unlikely diagnosis in patients who have acute hepatitis without hypergammaglobulinemia.

The gamma globulin or the IgG level may be followed on a regular basis as a marker of disease responsiveness to therapy.

Patients with autoimmune hepatitis type 2 commonly have partial IgA deficiency.

When To See A Healthcare Provider

If youre worried you may be experiencing symptoms of an autoimmune condition, be sure to see a healthcare provider for a comprehensive evaluation, which will include a thorough physical examination, blood tests, and possibly imaging tests.

If your primary care or family healthcare provider suspects an autoimmune process, you will likely be referred to a specialist, such as a rheumatologist , an endocrinologist , or a gastroenterologist .

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Management Of Autoimmune Hepatitis

Early data from trials of patients with what was then referred to variably as lupoid hepatitis, chronic active hepatitis or HBsAg negative chronic active hepatitis, highlight the poor prognosis of the condition without treatment. A follow-up study of patients presenting in the mid-1960s who were treated with steroids showed a 10-year survival of 63% in the treatment group compared with 27% in the control group with a median survival of 12.2 vs. 3.3 years. Therapy prolongs life, and prednisolone is first line therapy for inducing remission of disease while azathioprine is first line for maintenance of remission., Failure to use azathioprine is associated with poor outcomes in AIH.

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What Causes Autoimmune Hepatitis In Children

It is not known exactly why the immune system begins attacking liver cells in children with autoimmune hepatitis.

Experts are looking at a number of possible causes, including:

  • Genetics. Physical traits passed down from parents
  • Environment. Causes of disease from outside the body, such as toxic substances, certain medicines, or germs
  • Problems with the immune system. For example, in patients with autoimmune hepatitis, it seems that some cells that regulate the immune system are fewer or weaker, while other cells that make the immune system attack are more frequent or more active.

Inside the Liver Center: Meet Dr. Weymann

Dr. Weymann leads a team of highly skilled specialists dedicated to caring for children suffering from a wide range of liver diseases. Named to the Best Doctors in America list, Dr. Weymann understands that liver problems can be life-threatening and life-changing. Quick evaluation, correct diagnosis and early treatment can impact long-term health.

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Autoimmune Disease Can Be A Silent Killer

Hepatitis B Blood Tests Explained

Many autoimmune diseases start with small symptoms that can insidiously grow and morph into more small symptoms. This can happen for decades before the problems have done enough damage to send you into a doctors office to get a definitive diagnosis. That means you could have years of accumulated inflammatory damage before learning that your body has been silently attacking itself. The following video breaks down that top 7 symptoms of autoimmune disease that often go missed leading to years of unnecessary suffering

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Autoimmune Hepatitis With Jama Darling Md

By Jay-Ar Foronda

This is Episode Six of Autoimmune Disease: Pieces of the Picture. Dr. Jama Darling talks about autoimmune hepatitis, the importance of liver biopsy, how it is different from other types of hepatitis, and treatments of the disease. Dr. Darling is an Assistant Professor of Medicine in the Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology.

When we have diagnosed a patient with autoimmune hepatitis, one of the most common questions I get is, Ive never done drugs or had a blood transfusion. I dont drink alcoholwhy on earth do I have hepatitis?I explain to the patient that they dont have a virus, they dont have a blood-blood transmission virus like hepatitis C, it isnt due to a behavior such as excess alcohol intake.. Their immune system is recognizing something in the liver as unwanted and trying to get rid of it, and this is of no fault of their own.

Jama Darling, MD

Ron Falk, MD: Hello, and welcome to the Chairs Corner from the Department of Medicine at the University of North Carolina.

Welcome to our series where we are exploring topics related to autoimmune diseases, to help patients and their loved ones understand and manage their condition. Today were going to focus on autoimmune hepatitis. We welcome Dr. Jama Darling who is an Assistant Professor of Medicine in our Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Dr. Darling specializes in the treatment of hepatitis and other chronic liver diseases. Welcome, Jama.

Jama Darling, MD: Thank you.

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What Are The Symptoms Of Autoimmune Hepatitis

People with autoimmune hepatitis may have some of the following symptoms

When symptoms of autoimmune hepatitis are present, they can range from mild to severe.

Some people with autoimmune hepatitis have no symptoms. In such cases, doctors may find evidence of liver problems during routine blood tests that leads to a diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis. People without symptoms at diagnosis may develop symptoms later.

Some people with autoimmune hepatitis dont have symptoms until they develop complications due to cirrhosis. These symptoms include

  • feeling tired or weak
  • bloating from a buildup of fluid in the abdomen, called ascites
  • swelling of the lower legs, ankles, or feet, called edema

Search For A Clinical Trial

Autoimmune Hepatitis | Gina Choi, MD | UCLA Digestive Diseases

Clinical trials are research studies that test how well new medical approaches work in people. Before an experimental treatment can be tested on human subjects in a clinical trial, it must have shown benefit in laboratory testing or animal research studies. The most promising treatments are then moved into clinical trials, with the goal of identifying new ways to safely and effectively prevent, screen for, diagnose, or treat a disease.

Speak with your doctor about the ongoing progress and results of these trials to get the most up-to-date information on new treatments. Participating in a clinical trial is a great way to contribute to curing, preventing and treating liver disease and its complications.

Start your search here to find clinical trials that need people like you.

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How Should I Monitor The Patient With Aih

Patients with AIH have to be monitored lifelong. It is necessary to consider the following:

  • â Disease activity
  • â Development of other autoimmune diseases
  • â Development of long-term complications

When discontinuation of treatment is intended, serum aminotransferases, bilirubin, and gamma globulin need to be closely observed during the process of drug withdrawal. During that period, these should be tested every 3 weeks, including the first 3 months after drug withdrawal. In the following year, ALT, bilirubin, and gamma globulins should be assessed every 6 months and, thereafter, once a year lifelong.

In case of reoccurrence or in the setting of uncontrolled disease activity, monitoring has to be adapted to the individual patient and situation. A delay of treatment onset or change can fatally worsen the prognosis. In general, new adjustments of treatment require narrow follow ups, and testing intervals should be increased in case of stable disease.

During treatment with azathioprine, patients must be monitored for leukopenia and thrombocytopenia at 6-month intervals. Patients who receive prednisone should be monitored for bone disease at base line and then annually by bone densitometry measurement. Furthermore, they should undergo eye examinations periodically to detect glaucoma or cataracts.

A certain percentage of patients will show symptoms of correlated autoimmune diseases during the course of the disease, requiring adequate further diagnostic steps.

Table VI.

How To Prepare For Your First Appointment With A Hepatologist

Think through the questions that the doctor may ask you. Schedule some time to sit down and take notes before the appointment. Write down each of your symptoms and how long they have been going on. Think about any family members who have a history of liver disease or autoimmune conditions, and write them down as well. Finally, create a list of all of the medications, vitamins, and supplements you are currently taking.

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What Is Autoimmune Hepatitis

The liver is a large organ that sits up under your ribs on the right side of your belly . It helps filter waste from your body, makes bile to help digest food, and stores sugar that your body uses for energy. Autoimmune hepatitis occurs when your bodys infection-fighting system attacks your liver cells. This causes swelling, inflammation and liver damage.

It is a long-term or chronic inflammatory liver disease.

Autoimmune hepatitis:

  • May occur at any age
  • Affects women more than men
  • Is often linked to other diseases where the body attacks itself

What Is The Outlook For Someone With Autoimmune Hepatitis

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Autoimmune hepatitis is a chronic disease, meaning you will have it for the rest of your life. With proper treatment, its possible to enjoy years of remission without symptoms and healthy liver function.

The Canadian Society of Intestinal Research suggests that people who respond well to treatment can expect to have a normal life expectancy.

Also, a 2020 study found that with proper immunosuppressant therapy, about 90 percent of the 86 people with autoimmune hepatitis in this study achieved complete remission.

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Initial Therapy For Adults And Children

The American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases published detailed guidelines regarding the management of autoimmune hepatitis in 2010 and 2019.

The 2010 AASLD guideline delineated absolute and relative indications for immunosuppressive treatment. See Table 2, below.

Table 2. Indications for Treatment of Autoimmune Hepatitis in Adults

Absolute Indications

Note that many patients with cirrhosis and active autoimmune hepatitis respond well to immunosuppression.

The 2010 AASLD guideline also described the following contraindications to treatment :

  • Asymptomatic patients with normal or near normal aspartate aminotransferase and gamma globulin levels

  • Inactive cirrhosis

  • Severe osteoporosis, psychosis, brittle diabetes, or uncontrolled hypertension

  • Severe cytopenias or patients with complete deficiency of thiopurine methyltransferase

In addition, treatment might not be appropriate in patients with decompensated liver disease . Such individuals might be better served by liver transplantation.

The 2010 AASLD guideline also recommended initial treatment strategies for adults as shown in Table 3, below.

Table 3. Treatment Regimens for Adults

Table 4. Treatment Regimens for Children

What Is It Like To Live With Autoimmune Hepatitis

Autoimmune hepatitis is a chronic condition that may require treatment for the rest of your life. Once your liver function blood tests have returned to a healthy range, your medical team may be able to reduce your steroid use. Most individuals who are treated for autoimmune hepatitis have a good prognosis and do not experience additional complications. While you may need to take a medication every day, you can still go on to live a full, healthy life.

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Can An Autoimmune Hepatitis Diagnosis Be Something Else

Some symptoms and lab findings found in autoimmune hepatitis are also common in other chronic conditions. Your medical team will work to rule out any other possible causes for your symptoms. Some diseases to rule out include other types of hepatitis, certain viral infections, and other liver conditions such as cirrhosis and fatty liver disease.

How Autoimmune Hepatitis Is Diagnosed

Autoimmune Hepatitis (Lupoid hepatitis)

Autoimmune hepatitis is an autoimmune disease that occurs when the bodys immune system attacks the liver by mistake. The exact cause is unknown but believed to be due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors.

There is no one test to diagnose autoimmune hepatitis. The diagnostic process usually involves a physical exam, detailed history, lab tests, imaging studies, and a liver biopsy.

Verywell / Jessica Olah

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Autoimmune Hepatitis And Alcohol

Autoimmune hepatitis is not caused by alcohol consumption. Researchers believe those with AIH may have a genetic disposition to the condition which is triggered by environmental factors. Those with other autoimmune diseases are also more likely to be diagnosed with AIH.

For those living with autoimmune hepatitis, its important to talk with your doctor about recommendations around alcohol consumption. High alcohol consumption can worsen liver damage in several liver diseases, such as hepatitis C and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Less research has been done on low or moderate alcohol consumption, or on the impact of high alcohol consumption on rare liver diseases, including autoimmune hepatitis .

Low-to-moderate alcohol consumption, considered in most countries to be a maximum of two drinks per day for women and three drinks per day for men, is not associated with an increased risk for liver disease. Those with existing liver diseases, however, should talk with their doctors about what a safe level of alcohol consumption may be for them, also taking into account how their current medications may interact with alcohol. The Liver Foundation recommends reducing alcohol consumption to one drink per day for women and two drinks per day for men for those living with liver disease.

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Autoimmune Hepatitis & Lifestyle Changes

Falk: What kind of changes in lifestyle do patients with autoimmune hepatitis need to do? Or do they need to try to maintain their normal lifestyle as best as possible?

Darling: I think certainly they should try to maintain their normal lifestyle as best as possible. Most patients do feel better once their autoimmune liver disease is under good control. In general, if you decrease inflammation, you usually feel better. We do remind patients that its very important for them to have blood monitoring, so they need to get blood work about every three months, even if theyre on a stable dose of medication. If they already have early cirrhosis, theyre going to need an ultrasound every six months to look for liver cancer which is a risk if you have more advanced scarring in the liver. In general, we want patients to try to maintain a healthy lifestyle and do the things they enjoy doing including working and playing sports.

Falk: What do you tell patients about the fatigue, because that more than likely is the last thing to go away?

Darling: In regards to fatigue, I think I dont necessarily have a great answer for that one. Our patients that are under a lot of stress and are not sleeping, we try to do things that help with getting a good nights rest, especially if theyre stressed about their condition, encouraging some sort of physical activity improves that.

Falk: If you have autoimmune hepatitis, is it okay to drink alcohol?

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Management Of Autoimmune Hepatitis Symptoms

Once your physician has screened your symptoms, youll be prescribed relevant methods of treatment depending on severity. Your healthcare professional may recommend the following as a measure of relief:

  • Medication: To slow the progression of the disease and stop or slow down the immune system attack on your liver
  • Liver transplant: If liver damage has progressed up to an extent where medication cant control it

Do Patients Recover From Autoimmune Hepatitis Treatment

Living Well: What you need to know about hepatitis

Autoimmune hepatitis is a chronic condition, and while it can be managed, it usually cannot be cured. It is possible to achieve remission from autoimmune hepatitis with the use of steroids. However, most individuals will require treatment for the rest of their lives. The 10-year survival rate for people being treated for autoimmune hepatitis is between 83.8%94%. Without treatment, the survival rate falls to 50%60%.

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Complete Blood Cell Count And Other Blood Studies

Other hematologic abnormalities may include the following:

  • Mild leukopenia

  • Thrombocytopenia

  • Elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate

Eosinophilia is uncommon, but counts ranging from 9% to 48% are described. Autoimmune hepatitis has even been described as the sole presenting feature of idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome .

What Is A Possible Complication Of Autoimmune Hepatitis And Cirrhosis

People with autoimmune hepatitis and cirrhosis are at risk of developing liver cancer. A health care provider will monitor the person with a regular ultrasound examination of the liver. Ultrasound uses a device, called a transducer, that bounces safe, painless sound waves off organs to create an image of their structure. A specially trained technician performs the procedure in a health care provider’s office, an outpatient center, or a hospital, and a radiologista doctor who specializes in medical imaginginterprets the images anesthesia is not needed. The images can show the liver’s size and the presence of cancerous tumors.

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