What Should Be Done If The Hbsag Test Comes Positive
They should take further tests to determine if the Hepatitis B infection is acute or chronic. – The treatment for acute and chronic infection is different and hence, it is of utmost importance for the patient to determine the level of infection – Regular monitoring by a specialized physician or doctor is required.
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Hepatitis B Virus Surface Antigen Test Kit
Hepatitis B Virus Surface Antigen Test Kit is intended for qualitative detection of hepatitis B virus surface antigen in human serum or plasma, applying to auxiliary diagnosis of hepatitis B virus infection.
This product is for in vitro qualitative detection of hepatitis B virus surface antigen in human serum or plasma samples. This product is suitable for the auxiliary diagnosis of hepatitis B virus infection. Hepatitis B is a worldwide infectious disease caused by the hepatitis B virus , spread mainly through blood, mother-to-child, and sexual contact. Hepatitis B surface antigen is the coat protein of the hepatitis B virus. It appears in the blood with hepatitis B virus infection and is the main sign of hepatitis B virus infection. The lateral flow rapid detection cassette fo the hepatitis B surface antigen is one of the primary detection methods of the disease.
Sample type: Serum/plasma
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Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Rapid Test
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Data Extraction And Quality Assessment
Two authors independently extracted data and reached agreement on the following variables: study author and year study location and design specimens tested eligibility criteria index test and reference standard, including manufacturer raw cell numbers HIV co-infection sources of funding and reported conflict of interest.
Study quality was evaluated using the QUADAS-2 tool , which evaluates risk of bias and applicability concerns .
Specification Of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Test
The LINEAR Hepatitis B Antigen Cassette Test detects HBSAG concentration greater than 2 ng/ml in human serum by the development of a colored line in the test region of the test device.
The LINEAR Hepatitis B Antigen Cassette Test uses an antibody that is highly specific for Hepatitis B Antigen in serum. A result of 99.5 % concordance to the ELISA test was determined by a clinical study of 1208 samples.
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Search Strategy And Identification Of Studies
We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on the diagnostic accuracy of HBsAg tests. The review was registered in PROSPERO and reported in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses check list. We utilised standardised methods for systematic reviews on diagnostics, including an a priori protocol .
Literature search strategies were developed by a medical librarian with expertise in systematic review searching, using a search algorithm consisting of terms for: hepatitis B, diagnostic tests, and diagnostic accuracy. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Science Citation Index Expanded, SCOPUS, Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em CiÃªncias da SaÃºde , WHO Global Index Medicus, WHOs International Clinical Trials Registry and the Web of Science. We also contacted researchers, experts and authors of major trials, with no relevant manuscripts in preparation identified. Additional pertinent citations were identified through bibliographies of retrieved studies.
Abstracts were screened by reviewers AA and HK according to standard inclusion and exclusion criteria. All studies identified for full manuscript review were assessed independently by two reviewers against inclusion criteria. Papers were accepted or rejected, with reasons for exclusion specified. Discrepancies were resolved by discussion between review authors and, when required, a third independent reviewer .
What Is Hepatitis B Surface Antibody
When you are exposed to HBV, your body mounts an immune defense to specifically target and neutralize the invader. Unlike innate immunity which mounts a generalized defense against all invaders, this type of immunity is disease-specific.
This immune response occurs whether you are exposed to HBV through blood or sexual contact, or if you are vaccinated with the hepatitis B vaccine.
The virus has proteins on its surface, called antigens, that serve as unique identification tags. When HBV enters the body, the immune system âencodesâ antibodies specific to these antigens so that it can recognize and attack the virus should it appear again.
There are two types of antibodies produced in response to the virus:
- Immunoglobulin M is the antibody that mounts the initial attack but eventually fades away.
- Immunoglobulin G is the antibody that provides long-lasting immune protection against HBV. The immunity can last for many years, but it gradually wanes over time.
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More Information About The Test And Hepatitis
The hepatitis test kits detect antibodies in the serum/plasma or blood through the use of specific complementary antibody markers. Diagnosis consists of one screening test.
The hepatitis A IgM virus test detects the IgM antibodies produced by the body in defense against the virus. The HBsAb hepatitis B surface antibody test detects the antibodies complementary to the hepatitis B antigens presented on cells during infection by the hepatitis B virus. The hepatitis C virus test detects cells of the immune system raised specifically against the hepatitis C virus. The hepatitis E IgM virus test detects the IgM antibodies produced by the immune system in defense against the hepatitis E virus.
The test time varies depending on which test is taken. In the case of a positive result, one should consult with their doctor to consider the first stage of treatment. Our hepatitis test kits have been shown to be accurate in 98-99% of cases, clearly demonstrating their reliability. However, several conditions can change the hepatitis antibody levels and so we recommend consultation with a doctor to discuss abnormal results. Certain factors may influence the result of the test, for instance, some herbs or other natural products, possibly requiring the test to be re-administered.
What Is Hepatitis B
Hepatitis B is a serious liver infection caused by the hepatitis B virus . For some people, hepatitis B infection becomes chronic, meaning it lasts more than six months. Having chronic hepatitis B increases your risk of developing liver failure, liver cancer or cirrhosisa condition that causes permanent scarring of the liver.
Most people infected with hepatitis B as adults recover fully, even if their signs and symptoms are severe. Infants and children are more likely to develop a chronic hepatitis B infection.
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Study Selection And Characteristics
A total of 11,589 citations were identified, and 293 full-text articles examined which identified 40 studies meeting pre-defined criteria . Of the included studies, 33 compared RDTs and/or EIAs against an immunoassay reference standard, of which five focused on accuracy in HIV-positive individuals . Seven studies compared RDTs and/or EIAs against a NAT reference standard, of which 3 had data from HIV-positive patients . Studies were all either cross-sectional or case-control, predominantly in the laboratory setting, and performed in a broad range of populations, including healthy volunteers, blood donors, pregnant women, incarcerated adults, HIV and hepatitis patient cohorts with confirmed HBV infection. The prevalence of HBV ranged from 1.9 to 84% in populations tested. A mixture of serum, plasma and whole blood was used for RDTs, while studies of EIAs were performed on serum or plasma samples. Study characteristics are presented in Tables , and .
Three studies had data from 442 HIV-positive patients in Uganda and South Africa, with pooled sensitivity and specificity of 57.9% and 95.8% , respectively. The corresponding pooled sensitivity and specificity for the 202 HIV-negative patients across two of these studies were 83.3% and 85.7% , respectively .
Hbsag And Hbv Detection
Serum samples from the reference panel were tested for HBsAg markers using two commercial EIAs following the manufacturers instructions. Only samples with concordant results defined by both assays were included in the study. Serum samples from the field study were assayed for HBsAg detection using a commercial EIA . All HBsAg-reactive samples in the EIA were retested in duplicate. All serum samples were assayed for total antibodies directed against the total core antigen as well as anti-HBs using EIAs . Serum samples were also assayed for anti-HBc IgM, HBV e antigen and antibodies against HBeAg using commercial EIAs and ECLIAs when sufficient sample volume was available.
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Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Rapid
A blood test called hepatitis B surface antigen is used to see if someone has the hepatitis B virus. If it is discovered, along with specific antibodies, it indicates that the person has hepatitis B. If you have HBsAg in your blood, it means you are infected with the virus and can spread it to others through your blood or bodily fluids.
A Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Rapid helps to detect the infection with Hepatitis B virus and provides you with a clear picture of whatâs wrong with your body. You can secure some fantastic Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Rapid Delhi for a complete diagnosis of body check-up.
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Transmission Of Hepatitis B
The hepatitis B virus is transmitted through blood and sexual fluids. This can most commonly occur in the following ways:
Direct contact with infected blood
From an infected pregnant person to their newborn during pregnancy and childbirth
Needles and other medical/dental equipments or procedures that are contaminated or not sterile
Use of illegal or street drugs
Body piercing, tattooing, acupuncture and even nail salons are other potential routes of infection unless sterile needles and equipment are used. In addition, sharing sharp instruments such as razors, toothbrushes, nail clippers, earrings and body jewelry can be a source of infection.
Hepatitis B is NOT transmitted casually. It cannot be spread through toilet seats, doorknobs, sneezing, coughing, hugging or eating meals with someone who is infected with hepatitis B.
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Screening Tests For Hepatitis B
Your blood may be screened for HBV for many different reasons. There are several types of test, but the three generally included are the HBsAg, the antibody to HBsAg , and the antibody to hepatitis B core antigen .
These tests allow the healthcare provider to know whether you could benefit from vaccination, or if you have active or chronic hepatitis B and need counseling, care, or treatment.
You may be routinely screened if you are pregnant, are donating blood or tissue, need immunosuppressive therapy, or have end-stage renal disease. You will also be screened if you are in groups that are at higher risk for HBV.
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Ask Something For More Details
TheHBsAg Test is a rapid visual immunoassay for the qualitative, presumptive detection of HBsAg in human serum or plasma specimens. This kit is intended to be used as an aid in the diagnosis of HBV infection.
Hepatitis B virus is the prototypic member of the hepadnaviruses. Hepatitis B surface antigen is located in the lipid envelope of this small DNA virus. During the replicative phase of the virus, this surface antigen is produced in excess and is detectable in the blood of the infected. The incubation period of HBV is 6 weeks to 6 months.
Rapid test cassette with desiccant. Disposable pipettes.
Store at 2 ~ 30 Âº C in the sealed pouch for 24 months. Keep away from direct sunlight, moisture and heat. DO NOT FREEZE
Bring tests, specimens, and/or controls to room temperature before use.
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Hepatitis B Blood Tests
The Hepatitis B Panel of Blood Tests
Only one sample of blood is needed for a hepatitis B blood test, but the Hepatitis B Panel includes three parts. All three test results are needed to fully understand whether a person is infected or not. Below is an explanation of the 3-part Hepatitis B Panel of blood test results.
Hepatitis B Rapid Test Kit
Hep B STI Home Self Test Kit.
Hepatitis B is an infectious disease caused by the Hepatitis B virus which affects the liver. It is a contagious STI spread by bodily fluids. It can cause both acute and chronic infections. Many people in Australia have no symptoms during infection. Some develop a rapid onset of sickness with Hep B Symptoms such as vomiting, yellow skin, feeling tired, dark urine and abdominal pain on the right-hand side. It may take 30 to 180 days for symptoms to begin. Cirrhosis and liver cancer may eventually develop in those infected. These complications can result in the death of 15 to 25% of those with chronic disease. About a third of the world population has been infected at one point in their lives, including 240 million to 350 million who have chronic infections. Globally over 750,000 people die of hepatitis B each year. There are approx. 230,000 Australians living with Hepatitis B.
Hep B infection can be easily detected by testing at home with an STI Hep B self-test kit.
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Data Analysis And Synthesis
We conducted meta-analysis pooling data using the DerSimonian-Laird bivariate random effects model to calculate pooled sensitivity and specificity with 95% confidence intervals , which were used to estimate positive and negative likelihood ratios . Heterogeneity was assessed by visual inspection of forest plots and estimates of 2 for diagnostic odds ratios to measure between study variability. We performed sub-group analysis based on study year tests brands sample type and HIV status. All statistical analysis and figures were generated using Meta-DiscÂ© version 1.4.7. .
Introduction Of Hepatitis B Virus
HBsAg stands for Hepatitis B surface antigen. HBsAg test is available in both rapid and ELISA methods but here we concern with the rapid HBsAg test. Hepatitis B virus is a different virus from other hepatitis viruses like Hepatitis A, Hepatitis C, Hepatitis D, and Hepatitis E due to having DNA. It affects the liver and causing acute and chronic infection. The test kit is a product of J. MITRA & CO. PVT. LTD. is named HEPACARD. It is a visual, rapid, sensitive, and accurate one-step immunoassay for the qualitative detection of Hepatitis B surface antigen in human serum or plasma. The test is intended to be used as an aid in the recognition and diagnosis of acute infections and chronic infections carriers of the Hepatitis B Virus.
Features of the test kit
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How To Do The Hbsag Test Kit For Diagnostic
Allow test device, specimen, and/or controls to equilibrate to room temperature prior to testing.
Remove the test device from the sealed pouch and use it as soon as possible. Best results will be obtained if the assay is performed within one hour.
Place the test device on a clean and level surface. Hold the dropper vertically and transfer 3 drops of sample to the specimen well of the test device, and then start the timer. Avoid trapping air bubbles in the specimen well . See the illustration below.
Wait for the red line to appear. Depending on the concentration of HBSAG positive results may be observed in as short as 60 seconds. However , to confirm negative results. the complete reaction time, 30 minutes, is required.