Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus And Nafld
J Hepatol.Hepatology.Gastroenterology.Diabetes.Hepatology.Diabetes.Hepatology.Hepatology.Am J Gastroenterol.Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.
J Biol Chem.Diabetes Metab Res Rev.Gastroenterology.J Clin Endocrinol Metab.
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J Clin Endocrinol Metab.Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol.
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The Stages Of Cirrhosis
Cirrhosis of the liver can happen in two main stages. In the first stage, Compensated cirrhosis, the body continues to function even though there is damage in the liver. In the second stage, Decompensated cirrhosis, you may start to experience pronounced symptoms. Healthline identifies some of this symptoms as variceal haemorrhage, hepatic encephalopathy, and kidney failure.
Who Does Nafld Affect
Experts dont fully understand why some people get it and others dont. But youre more likely to if youre overweight or obese have diabetes, high cholesterol and triglycerides, high blood pressure, or hepatitis C and other liver infections or take certain medications, including steroids or drugs for cancer or heart problems. Most people with this type of fatty liver are middle-aged. But the disease can happen to anyone, even kids.
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Current Therapy For Nafld
J Clin Gastroenterol.Hepatology.Semin Liver Dis.Acta Med Scand.Dig Dis Sci.J Pediatr.J Hepatol.Q J Med.Am J Gastroenterol.
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J Hepatol.J Pediatr.Am J Gastroenterol.Nat Med.Am J Gastroenterol.
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What Is Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Alcoholic fatty liver disease is due to heavy alcohol use. Your liver breaks down most of the alcohol you drink, so it can be removed from your body. But the process of breaking it down can generate harmful substances. These substances can damage liver cells, promote inflammation, and weaken your body’s natural defenses. The more alcohol that you drink, the more you damage your liver. Alcoholic fatty liver disease is the earliest stage of alcohol-related liver disease. The next stages are alcoholic hepatitis and cirrhosis.
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How Can I Cover Medication Costs
New therapies called direct-acting antivirals are effective and can achieve cures of over 90%. Because these new therapies are very new, they remain very expensive. As such, drug coverage from both government and private companies may require that your liver disease has progressed to a certain stage before they are willing to cover the cost of these drugs.
Talk with your healthcare provider about financial support that may be available.
Below are useful resources when looking for financial assistance:Private health insurance or drug plansIf you have private health insurance or a drug plan at work, you may be able to have the medication paid through your plan. Please consult your private health insurance or drug plan provider to see if your drug is covered.
Publicly funded plansEach provincial and territorial government offers a drug benefit plan for eligible groups. Some are income-based universal programs. Most have specific programs for population groups that may require more enhanced coverage for high drug costs. These groups include seniors, recipients of social assistance, and individuals with diseases or conditions that are associated with high drug costs. For more details, please contact your provincial or territorial health care ministry, or click on the appropriate link below.
Available Patient Assistance Programs for Hepatitis C treatment Holkira Pak Maviret
MerckCare Hepatitis C Program 1 872-5773 Zepatier
Experimental Models: Steatosis And Fibrosis Development
In animal models, such as the leptin deficient ob/ob mouse or the leptin receptor deficient mouse and rat , there is very marked hepatic steatosis but little steatohepatitis or fibrosis. Development of steatohepatitis in these models depends on additional factors, such as endotoxin exposure, acute liver injury , alcohol, excess dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids, or aging. A unifying hypothesis envisages that all causes capable of changing the redox equilibrium of the hepatocyte may result in liver inflammation and fibrogenesis activation. For example, ROS may promote hepatic stellate cell activation and collagen fibre deposition. Lipid peroxidation products, such as 4-hydroxy-2,3-nonenal, may elicit activation and nuclear translocation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases, upregulate c-Jun and increase AP-1 binding, all of which may lead to procollagen type I overexpression. Furthermore, these phenomena are efficiently prevented by antioxidants.
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What Happens If Liver Disease Goes Untreated
Untreated liver disease can result in cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease, which carries its own spectrum of complications, according to Lindenmeyer. Once patients have cirrhosis, or end stages scarring of the liver, theyre at risk for developing whats called portal hypertension, she says.
Portal hypertension is a high pressure system in the liver that causes complications that can be associated with ascites and edema , as well as gastrointestinal bleeding.
Confusion can result from advanced or end-stage liver disease and infections, says Lindenmeyer. This happens when the liver isnt adequately removing toxins from your blood and they build up in the brain.
What Are The Symptoms Of Hepatitis
Signs and symptoms of acute hepatitis appear quickly. They include:
- yellow skin and eyes which may be sign of jaundice
The virus can transmit through:
- having unprotected sexual intercourse
- having a tattoo with unsterilized needles
- sustaining accidental skin pricks with medical equipment
- sharing personal items, such as a toothbrush or razor
- breastfeeding, if the mother has the virus
Long-term complications, such as liver cancer or cirrhosis, can affect around 15-25% of people with chronic hepatitis B. This can lead to liver failure, where your liver stops working properly, and even liver cancer. It can also cause blood vessel problems and kidney disease. Hepatitis B can even cause death if its not treated.
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What Is Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
NAFLD is a type of fatty liver disease that is not related to heavy alcohol use. There are two kinds:
- Simple fatty liver, in which you have fat in your liver but little or no inflammation or liver cell damage. Simple fatty liver typically does not get bad enough to cause liver damage or complications.
- Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis , in which you have inflammation and liver cell damage, as well as fat in your liver. Inflammation and liver cell damage can cause fibrosis, or scarring, of the liver. NASH may lead to cirrhosis or liver cancer.
Direct Involvement Of Hcv In The Development Of Insulin Resistance
A prominent mechanism linking steatosis and fibrogenesis is insulin resistance. The molecular cause of insulin resistance, a major factor in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, is unknown. Several papers have suggested an association between chronic hepatitis C and type 2 diabetes. This is relevant as prolonged hyperglycaemia results in several metabolic changes that are of interest in liver fibrogenesis and recent studies show indeed a close correlation between the degree of insulin resistance and extent of fibrosis.
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How Can I Know Whether I Have Fatty Liver Disease
There are a number of ways in which fatty liver disease can be diagnosed. Ultrasound and other imaging techniques can be used to diagnose this condition. Unlike the latter two, ultrasound is cheap and accessible, and is generally the first diagnostic procedure your doctor will use if they suspect that you suffer from fatty liver disease. Sadly, ultrasound cannot be used to determine the amount of cells affected by steatosis.
The most precise method of diagnosing fatty liver disease is a liver biopsy. But, since this method is invasive, and a number of things could go wrong during the procedure , the doctors usually opt for other, non-invasive methods.
Steatosis Hcv Genotype 3 And Viral Replication
Several studies have observed a significant association between HCV genotype 3 infection and the presence of steatosis . In our study, including 290 chronic hepatitis C patients, steatosis, in multivariate analysis, was associated with HCV genotype 3 infection, higher BMI, and a higher grade of necroinflammation. Thus steatosis is more frequent in HCV genotype 3 than in HCV genotype 1 infected patients. Steatosis is present in 73% of patients infected with genotype 3 and in 50% of patients infected with genotypes other than 3 . The mechanisms underlying this genotype specific steatosis are unknown. We have recently shown that HCV genotype 3 is associated with higher quasispecies heterogeneity than genotype 1. Serum levels of apolipoprotein B and cholesterol are reduced in patients in whom steatosis responds to antiviral therapy. Thus the disappearance of steatosis correlates with normalisation of apolipoprotein B and cholesterol levels. Hypocholesterolaemia in patients with chronic hepatitis C has been reported by others. These observations suggest that HCV may interfere with secretion of very low density lipoprotein , which is corrected by antiviral therapy.
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What Are The Symptoms Of Liver Disease
At the beginning of the spectrum of liver disease, it can be asymptomatic, says Lindenmeyer. Take hepatitis C, for example, she says: The majority of people who have hepatitis C have no idea, because they dont have symptoms, she says. This is why we recommend screening for hepatitis C for the baby boomer cohort, or everyone born between 1945 and 1965.
Early symptoms of cirrhosis may include feeling tired or weak, loss of appetite, weight loss, nausea and vomiting, and pain in the upper right side of your abdomen. With more advanced liver disease, as well as liver failure, symptoms include fluid accumulation in the abdomen or legs, yellowing of the skin or eyes, fatigue, mental confusion, and bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract, says Lindenmeyer.
Do Most People With Hepatitis C Develop Liver Cancer
Before concluding this article, lets look at some common questions that naturally come up when a person hears about the link between Hepatitis C and Cirrhosis of the Liver. Do most people who have liver cirrhosis end up with liver cancer? According to WebMD, an online resource that provides information about health issues, the answer is no, as only about 5 percent of the 3 million Americans who have hepatitis C will end up with liver cancer.
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What Is The Connection Between Fatty Liver Disease And Hepatitis C
Approximately 100 million people in the United States have been diagnosed with fatty liver disease and another 2.4 million people are living with hepatitis C, though the number may be as high as 4.5 million because many people have the disease but havent been diagnosed. Both diseases affect the liver of the afflicted person. However, about 40% of patients with hepatitis C have a co-occurring diagnosis of fatty liver. So, what is fatty liver disease and how does it impact hepatitis C? This resource will help you understand these diseases and how you can overcome them.
I Have Hepatitis C How Can I Best Protect My Liver
If you have been diagnosed with hepatitis C, your doctor has likely discussed the ways in which your liver has been impacted by your strain of the virus. You may have even completed liver tests once or multiple times throughout the treatment process. As part of the treatment plan, many doctors provide dietary recommendations to their patients. This is so that the patient is best able to understand how their diet impacts their liver and so that the patient has all of the information possible to make healthy choices when purchasing and consuming food on a daily basis.
If your doctor has recommended dietary changes based on your hepatitis C, you will want to take that advice very seriously. In some cases, your doctor may simply ask you to cut down on fatty foods. In other cases, your doctor may provide a list of recommended foods or contact information for a local dietician to help you revamp your eating habits. In either case, you can find guidance for choosing low fat or non-fat items using the doctors resources, by speaking with a dietician, and by talking with your local grocery clerk. These people can help you to gain an initial insight into how to alter your diet.
In addition, you can work to increase your knowledge of healthy eating and to change your eating habits by being aware of food labels, both which contain more fat than you wish to consume and which offer healthy alternatives to the foods you most enjoy.1-4
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Anthropometric And Laboratory Evaluations
All subjects had a complete clinical, anthropometric and laboratory evaluation. BMI was calculated as weight divided by height squared . Subjects in the BMI range 25 to 30 kg/m2 and 30 kg/m2 were considered overweight and obese, respectively. Waist-to-hip ratio was calculated as waist circumference at umbilicus/hip circumference at the maximal circumference over the buttocks. Laboratory investigations included fasting serum levels of albumin, bilirubin, ALT, aspartate aminotransferase , -glutamyltransferase , total and HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, serum iron parameters , glucose and insulin concentrations.
Plasma glucose levels were measured by the glucose oxidase method . Plasma insulin concentrations were assessed by a double-antibody radioimmunoassay . Insulin determination in the two centers was standardized. Fasting serum liver function tests and lipid levels were determined by routine laboratory techniques.
Subjects were classified according to their fasting blood glucose as follows: normal fasting glucose , impaired fasting glucose and diabetes mellitus .
Insulin resistance was calculated on the basis of the fasting glucose and insulin levels, according to the homeostasis model assessment method. HOMA-R values 2.7 were considered to indicate insulin resistance this cutoff corresponds to the upper quartile of a control population, as previously published.
How Can Fatty Liver Disease Be Treated
Unfortunately, there is no specific treatment for this condition. The only thing you can and should do is to change your diet and lose weight. Also, since alcohol is known to cause and contribute to fatty liver disease, you should stop drinking as well. Studies suggest that a healthy diet and regular exercise can reduce the number cells affected by this condition in only three months. If this condition has affected large parts of the liver, and the damage is irreversible, liver transplantation might be the only option.
Diagnosing the underlying cause of steatosis is essential in determining which type of therapy should be administered. Once the exact cause is known, treating it will, in time, treat the fatty liver disease as well.
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Tips To Keep Your Liver Healthy
If you have liver disease or youre at risk for liver disease because of a family history or underlying medical condition, its essential to make and keep regular appointments with your liver doctor or primary care doctor and take your medications as directed, says Lindenmeyer.
Other tips to keep your liver healthy include:
- Limit your alcohol consumption. Follow the recommendations for alcohol consumption, which are different for men and women, says Lindenmeyer. For men, drink no more than two alcoholic drinks per day and for women, no more than one, she says.
- Maintain a normal weight. Keeping your body weight in a healthy range can reduce your risk of developing fatty liver disease. Adopt an exercise regimen that includes cardiovascular and strength training, says Lindenmeyer. Not only will this help with weight management and other chronic conditions, theres even some research that suggests aerobic exercise could help protect the liver by preventing liver inflammation.
- Improve your diet. The Mediterranean diet has been shown to be beneficial for patients with fatty liver disease, says Lindenmeyer. Drinking coffee has been linked to benefits for people with fatty liver disease as well, she adds.
Who Is At Risk For Fatty Liver Disease
The cause of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is unknown. Researchers do know that it is more common in people who:
- Are middle aged or older
- Are Hispanic, followed by non-Hispanic whites. It is less common in African Americans.
- Have high levels of fats in the blood, such as cholesterol and triglycerides
- Have certain infections, such as hepatitis C
- Have been exposed to some toxins
NAFLD affects about 25% of people in the world. As the rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and high cholesterol are rising in the United States, so is the rate of NAFLD. NAFLD is the most common chronic liver disorder in the United States.
Alcoholic fatty liver disease only happens in people who are heavy drinkers, especially those who have been drinking for a long period of time. The risk is higher for heavy drinkers who are women, have obesity, or have certain genetic mutations.
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Here Is A Perfect & Permanent Cure For Hepatitis A B & C And Fatty Liver Disease
Did You Test Positive To Hepatitis? Worry not and keep to this guide a natural solution that cures all types of viral hepatitis & fatty liver with no adverse effects
But first, I am going to explain to you what exactly hepatitis is and the permanent cure.
Hepatitis is a liver disease caused by the hepatitis virus which could be easily contracted from a victim through contact of body fluids. This could be either through sexual contact, blood contact or even saliva.
It involves inflammation of the liver cells and damage to the liver. The liver is a vital organ that processes nutrients, filters the blood, and fights infections. When the liver is inflamed or damaged, its functions can be affected. Hepatitis is commonly caused by a viral infection, but there are other possible causes of hepatitis such as heavy alcohol use, toxins, some medications, and certain medical conditions.
Viral infections of the liver that are classified as hepatitis include hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E. A different virus is responsible for each type of virally transmitted hepatitis.
If not treated with caution, this hepatitis virus would gradually grow into a more severe state which results in scarring of the liver, abnormal functionality of the liver and in due time, chronic hepatitis, liver cancer or cirrhosis.