Thursday, September 22, 2022

How Is Hepatitis B Detected

What Is The Outlook For People With Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B Virus: Serology

The outlook for people with HBV is better now than ever before. You are certainly able to live a full life and help yourself stay healthy. You should make sure to have regular check-ups with a healthcare provider who is qualified to treat hepatitis B, possibly a liver doctor.

Make sure you are vaccinated against hepatitis A. Check with your healthcare provider or pharmacist before taking other medications or over-the-counter products, including supplements and natural products. These could interfere with your medication or damage your liver. For instance, taking acetaminophen in large doses may harm your liver.

Follow the usual guidelines for living a healthy life:

  • Eat nutritious foods, choosing from a variety of vegetables, fruits and healthy proteins. It is said that cruciferous vegetables are especially good at protecting the liver.
  • Exercise regularly.
  • Dont smoke and dont drink. Both tobacco and alcohol are bad for your liver.
  • Do things that help you cope with stress, like journaling, talking with others, meditating and doing yoga.
  • Avoid inhaling toxic fumes.

Interpretation Of Hbv Serologic Tests

The three major tests used for hepatitis B screening are HBsAg, anti-HBs, and anti-HBc. The following summarizes the interpretation of test results with these three serologic tests . The anti-HBc test may consist of a total anti-HBc or an IgM anti-HBc. The IgM anti-HBc has value primarily when considering acute hepatitis B infection. For diagnostic purposes, testing for HBeAg and anti-HBe is usually not performed, since they typically do not provide additional diagnostic information. For persons who are diagnosed with HBV infection, evaluation of HBeAg, anti-HBe, and HBV DNA are all usually performed and monitoring of these labs can be important in persons on treatment for chronic HBV.

  • Immune from Vaccination: All modern HBV vaccines utilize recombinant HBsAg as the primary immunogen. The host serologic response to the vaccine is the development of anti-HBs. The hepatitis B vaccines do not generate an anti-HBc immune response. A positive anti-HBs in conjunction with negative HBsAg and negative anti-HBc indicates immunity as a result of vaccination, whereas a positive titer for both anti-HBs and anti-HBc indicates immunity from past infection with HBV. An anti-HBs titer greater than 10 to 12 mIU/mL correlates with protective immunity.

What Is Hepatitis B Surface Antibody

When you are exposed to HBV, your body mounts an immune defense to specifically target and neutralize the invader. Unlike innate immunity which mounts a generalized defense against all invaders, this type of immunity is disease-specific.

This immune response occurs whether you are exposed to HBV through blood or sexual contact, or if you are vaccinated with the hepatitis B vaccine.

The virus has proteins on its surface, called antigens, that serve as unique identification tags. When HBV enters the body, the immune system “encodes” antibodies specific to these antigens so that it can recognize and attack the virus should it appear again.

There are two types of antibodies produced in response to the virus:

  • Immunoglobulin M is the antibody that mounts the initial attack but eventually fades away.
  • Immunoglobulin G is the antibody that provides long-lasting immune protection against HBV. The immunity can last for many years, but it gradually wanes over time.

Also Check: How Can You Spread Hepatitis C

What Do Hepatitis B Test Results Mean

Hepatitis B test results help determine if HBV infection is negative or positive, and if positive, whether the infection is acute or chronic, or if recovery is complete. A combination of results are considered to identify and classify HBV infection status.

The following are some interpretations of hepatitis B test results:

Table: Hepatitis B test results and interpretations

Test

What Is The Normal Range For Hepatitis B Surface Antibody

Hepatitis B Transmission for Those Newly Diagnosed
  • What Is the Normal Range for Hepatitis B Surface Antibody? Center
  • Hepatitis B surface antibodies are measured in blood samples in milli-International Units/milliliter mIU/mL). The ranges for hepatitis B surface antibodies are:

    • Anti-HBs greater than 10-12 mIU/mL: Protected against hepatitis B virus infection, either from vaccination or successful recovery from a previous HBV infection.
    • Anti-HBs less than 5 mIU/mL: Negative for HBV infection, but susceptible and hence requires vaccination.
    • Anti-HBs from 5-12 mIU/mL: Inconclusive results and the test should be repeated.

    However, there is no standardization of these values so it is advisable to check the manufacturers values it is the reason values are mainly reported as positive or negative.

    Don’t Miss: How Long Does Hepatitis B Vaccine Last In The Body

    Assessment Of Hbv Immune Status

    Immunity to HBV is acquired from a resolved infection or from vaccination .2). The HBV vaccine has been shown to induce protective immunity in 90% to 95% of vaccinees. Most vaccinees will have protective levels of anti-HBs for five to 10 years after vaccination, although the exact duration of immunity remains undefined. When anti-HBs levels have waned below the protective threshold of 10 mIU/mL, a booster dose of HBV vaccine has been shown to induce a strong anamnestic immune response in such individuals. It is therefore probable that protection from chronic HBV infection may last for decades and may well be lifelong .

    Investigation of hepatitis B virus immunity. Anti-HBc-Total Total antibody to hepatitis B core protein Anti-HBs/HBsAb Antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen

    The HBV immune status can be determined using the tests outlined below, but testing for vaccine immunity in the general population is not indicated unless the individual is at high risk of infection .3). Nonimmune individuals should be offered HBV vaccination where clinically appropriate.

    Chronic Hepatitis B Complications

    Chronic hepatitis B can lead to

    • cirrhosis, a condition in which scar tissue replaces healthy liver tissue and prevents your liver from working normally. Scar tissue also partly blocks the flow of blood through the liver. As cirrhosis gets worse, the liver begins to fail.
    • liver failure, in which your liver is badly damaged and stops working. Liver failure is also called end-stage liver disease. People with liver failure may require a liver transplant.
    • liver cancer. Your doctor may suggest blood tests and an ultrasound or another type of imaging test to check for liver cancer. Finding cancer at an early stage improves the chance of curing the cancer.

    Don’t Miss: How Can You Get Hepatitis A

    What Should You Know About Hepatitis B Before You Travel

    Hepatitis B is quite common in China and other Asian countries, where as many as 1 in 12 people have the virus, though many dont know it. Before traveling to those places, you should make sure youve been vaccinated against the virus.

    In addition to getting the vaccine, you can take these additional precautions to reduce your risk of contracting the virus:

    • Refrain from taking illegal drugs.
    • Always use latex or polyurethane condoms during sex.
    • Make sure new, sterile needles are used during all piercings, tattoos and acupuncture sessions.
    • Avoid direct contact with blood and bodily fluids.
    • Know the HBV status of all your sexual partners.
    • Ask your doctor about possible vaccination before you travel to a place where hepatitis B is common.

    A note from Cleveland Clinic

    Hepatitis B is a liver disease that can cause serious damage to your health. One reason that is dangerous is that it can easily go undetected for years while damaging your liver. Talk with your healthcare provider about being tested for hepatitis B if you have any reason to believe that you were not vaccinated or if you have engaged in risky behavior. If you do test positive, follow the directions from your healthcare provider so that you can live a longer, healthier and happier life.

    Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 07/09/2020.

    References

    Prevent Hepatitis B Infections In Newborns

    Viral Hepatitis B and D

    If you are pregnant and have hepatitis B, talk with your doctor about lowering the risk that the infection will spread to your baby. Your doctor will check your virus levels during pregnancy. If virus levels are high, your doctor may recommend treatment during pregnancy to lower virus levels and reduce the chance that hepatitis B will spread to your baby. Your doctor may refer you to a liver specialist to find out if you need hepatitis B treatment and to check for liver damage.

    When it is time to give birth, tell the doctor and staff who deliver your baby that you have hepatitis B. A health care professional should give your baby the hepatitis B vaccine and HBIG right after birth. The vaccine and HBIG will greatly reduce the chance of your baby getting the infection.

    Read Also: Can Hepatitis B Be Transmitted Through Saliva

    What Do The Results Mean

    A hepatitis B blood panel consists of three tests that can be done with just one blood sample:

    • Hepatitis B surface antigen . A positive test indicates that youre infected with hepatitis B and that you can spread it to other people. Further tests are needed to see if you have an acute or chronic infection.
    • Hepatitis B core antibody . A positive result can indicate a past or current hepatitis B infection, but doesnt mean youre immune. A positive result needs to be interpreted by a doctor by examining the results of the other two tests.
    • Hepatitis B surface antibody . A positive test indicates that youre protected from hepatitis B either through previous infection or vaccination .

    The combination of these tests can indicate your hepatitis B status and whether you need to be vaccinated. Your test will give a negative or positive result for each category depending on whether your results are above or below the cutoff value.

    Most peoples test results fall into the following categories. But its possible to have a result that doesnt fall into one of these groups. If youre reading your results yourself, be careful not to confuse HBsAb with HBcAb.

    HBsAG

    is associated with hepatitis B immunity after vaccination. But research has found that anti-HBs decline over time.

    A found that more than 95 percent of people had anti-HBs levels greater than 10IU/L two years after vaccination. But this rate decreased to 70 percent after eight years.

    Prevent Infection After Contact With The Virus

    If you think you have been in contact with the hepatitis B virus, see your doctor right away. Doctors typically recommend a dose of the hepatitis B vaccine to prevent infection. In some cases, doctors may also recommend a medicine called hepatitis B immune globulin to help prevent infection. You must get the vaccine dose and, if needed, HBIG shortly after coming into contact with the virus, preferably within 24 hours.

    You May Like: Medicine That Cures Hepatitis C

    What Are The Types Of Hepatitis B

    There are two types of hepatitis B infection: acute and chronic.

    Acute

    An acute infection happens at the beginning, when you first get infected with hepatitis B. Many people are able to clear it from their bodies and recover. In fact, this is true of about 4 in 5 adults who are infected.

    Chronic

    If you are not able to clear the infection within six months or longer, you have chronic hepatitis B. It is chronic hepatitis B that leads to inflammation and the serious, and possibly fatal, illnesses of cirrhosis of the liver and liver cancer. Treatment can slow disease progress, reduce the chance of liver cancer and increase your chances of surviving.

    Who Should Get Screened For Hepatitis B

    Hepatitis B Causes + 6 Natural Treatments for Symptoms

    The U.S. Centers for Disease Control calls for HBV screening of all foreign-born persons from regions where hepatitis B is common regardless of their vaccination history.

    Additionally, all pregnant women should be screened for HBV at an early prenatal visit during each pregnancy, even if they have been previously tested or vaccinated.

    Other groups recommended for HBV screening include:

    • Anyone seeking protection from the HBV infection
    • Healthcare and public safety workers
    • Household, sex, or needle-sharing contacts of persons infected with HBV
    • Intravenous drug users

    Don’t Miss: How Us Hepatitis C Transmitted

    Should I Be Screened For Hepatitis B

    Screening is testing for a disease in people who have no symptoms. Doctors use blood tests to screen for hepatitis B. Many people who have hepatitis B dont have symptoms and dont know they are infected with hepatitis B. Screening tests can help doctors diagnose and treat hepatitis B, which can lower your chances of developing serious health problems.

    Your doctor may recommend screening for hepatitis B if you9,14

    • are pregnant
    • were born in an area of the world where 2 percent or more of the population has hepatitis B infection, which includes Africa, Asia, and parts of the Middle East, Eastern Europe, and South America
    • didnt receive the hepatitis B vaccine as an infant and have parents who were born in an area where 8 percent or more of the population had hepatitis B infection, which includes sub-Saharan Africa and parts of Asia
    • are HIV-positive
    • are a man who has sex with men
    • have lived with or had sex with a person who has hepatitis B
    • have an increased chance of infection due to other factors

    How Is Hepatitis B Spread

    You can become infected with hepatitis B through exposure to blood, semen and other bodily fluids of an infected person. You can get the infection by:

    • Having unprotected sex.
    • Sharing or using dirty needles for drug use, tattoos or piercing.
    • Sharing everyday items that may contain body fluids, including razors, toothbrushes, jewelry for piercings and nail clippers.
    • Being treated medically by someone who does not use sterile instruments.
    • Being bitten by someone with the infection.
    • Being born to a pregnant woman with the infection.

    Hepatitis B is not spread by:

    • Kissing on the cheek or lips.
    • Coughing or sneezing.
    • Hugging, shaking hands or holding hands.
    • Eating food that someone with the infection has prepared.
    • Breastfeeding.

    Read Also: Signs And Symptoms Of Hepatitis A

    How The Test Is Performed

    Blood is most often drawn from a vein from the inside of the elbow or the back of the hand. The site is cleaned with germ-killing medicine . The health care provider wraps an elastic band around the upper arm to apply pressure to the area and make the vein swell with blood.

    Next, the provider gently inserts a needle into the vein. The blood collects into an airtight tube attached to the needle. The elastic band is removed from your arm. Once the blood has been collected, the needle is removed. The puncture site is covered to stop any bleeding.

    In infants or young children, a sharp tool called a lancet may be used to puncture the skin and make it bleed. The blood collects into a small glass tube, or onto a slide or test strip. A bandage may be placed over the area if there is any bleeding.

    The blood sample is sent to a lab to be examined. Blood tests are used to check for antibodies to each of the hepatitis viruses.

    How Is Hepatitis B Transmitted

    Hepatitis, Causes, Signs and Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment.

    Hepatitis B is spread in several distinct ways: sexual contact sharing needles, syringes, or other drug-injection equipment or from mother-to-child at birth.

    In the United States, in 2018, injection drug use was the most common risk factor reported among people with an acute HBV infection, followed by having multiple sex partners. Less commonly reported risk factors included accidental needle sticks, surgery, transfusions, and household contact with a person with HBV infection. In the United States, healthcare-related transmission of HBV is rare.

    Mother-to-child transmission of HBV is especially concerning, because it is preventable. An estimated 25,000 infants are born to mothers diagnosed with HBV each year in the United States, and approximately 1,000 mothers transmit HBV to their infants. Without appropriate medical care and vaccinations, 90% of HBV-infected newborns will develop chronic infection, remaining infected throughout their lives. Up to 25% of people infected at birth will die prematurely of HBV-related causes. For this reason, the standard of care for pregnant women includes an HBV test during each pregnancy so that the appropriate steps can be taken to prevent HBV-positive mothers from transmitting the disease to her infant.

    Read Also: Xifaxan Dose For Hepatic Encephalopathy

    How Do Doctors Treat Hepatitis B

    Doctors typically dont treat hepatitis B unless it becomes chronic. Doctors may treat chronic hepatitis B with antiviral medicines that attack the virus.

    Not everyone with chronic hepatitis B needs treatment. If blood tests show that hepatitis B could be damaging a persons liver, a doctor may prescribe antiviral medicines to lower the chances of liver damage and complications.

    Medicines that you take by mouth include

    A medicine that doctors can give as a shot is peginterferon alfa-2a .

    The length of treatment varies. Hepatitis B medicines may cause side effects. Talk with your doctor about the side effects of treatment. Tell your doctor before taking any other prescription or over-the-counter medicines.

    For safety reasons, you also should talk with your doctor before using dietary supplements, such as vitamins, or any complementary or alternative medicines or medical practices.

    Uses Of Surveillance Data

    Acute and chronic hepatitis B surveillance data can be used to inform and improve public health interventions in the following ways:

  • Assessing the frequency and causes of vaccine failure. When available, vaccination history should be obtained. Though vaccine failure is rare, any case in a person who was previously vaccinated requires additional investigation to identify potential instances of vaccine failure. Where available, jurisdiction immunization registries can provide valuable information for such investigations Section 1.10. Health care professionals or public health authorities who have questions on these cases should contact CDCs DVH at . Reporting and investigating these cases through surveillance is important for informing vaccination policies and education.
  • Tracking cases of chronic hepatitis B. Surveillance systems and databases that track chronic hepatitis B cases can aid in monitoring trends in the prevalence of chronic infection.
  • Understanding the burden of hepatitis B in the community. Person-based longitudinal databases can provide a better understanding of the burden of hepatitis B in the community. Such databases can help
  • determine whether infections have resolved or reactivated
  • identify probable cases that need additional testing for diagnosis
  • identify health-related disparities
  • facilitate identification of HBV-infected pregnant people for enrollment in the Perinatal Hepatitis B Prevention Program
  • facilitate monitoring of perinatal hepatitis B
  • Recommended Reading: Hepatitis C In Babies Symptoms

    Popular Articles
    Related news