Monday, January 30, 2023

Can Hepatitis B Be Transmitted Through Saliva

High Cure Rate For Hepatitis C Prompts Call For Earlier Detection And Testing

How is Hepatitis B & C transmitted? | Apollo Hospitals

Even though it is theoretically possible to contract hep C through contact with blood or blood products, this has become less of a problem. Most people with hepatitis C now receive treatment with an injection rather than a pill, which greatly reduces the chances of them contracting the virus through blood contact. Despite the fact that hep c is currently cured, increased awareness and testing are still required to combat the virus. If treated early, it is possible to prevent long-term health problems.

Can Hep C Survive Outside Body

According to a recent study conducted by Yale School of Medicine and Public Health researchers, the hepatitis C virus can remain infectious on surfaces for up to six weeks, significantly longer than previously thought.

We will be able to find solutions. Despite the fact that the disease cannot be cured, there are some medications that can help to control it. Antiviral drugs, which prevent the virus from replicating, and immune systemboosting therapies, which aid in the bodys ability to fight the virus more effectively, are two examples of drugs that help the body fight the virus. It is not necessary to avoid people with hepatitis C, because they are only likely to become infected through blood contact. Washing and rinsing the washing machine and dishes as usual is not required, and boiling is not. To combat the disease, an antiviral drug and a immunosuppressive therapy are used.

How Can Hepatitis B Be Prevented

A safe and effective vaccine to prevent hepatitis B is available. The hepatitis B vaccine is recommended for people in high-risk settings who have not already been infected and for infants who are born to infected mothers. It is recommended that all children and adolescents be vaccinated against hepatitis B along with their routine childhood immunizations beginning at birth. A special hepatitis B immune globulin is also available for people who are exposed to the virus. In the event of exposure to hepatitis B, consult a doctor or the local health department.

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How You Can Get Hepatitis B

You can contract hepatitis B by:

  • Sharing needles while doing drugs, or being tattooed by a needle that isn’t clean
  • Having unprotected sex
  • At birth, if the mother has hepatitis B
  • Sharing items like razors, nail clippers, or toothbrushes with someone who has hepatitis B

You can’t contract hepatitis B from casual contact, including:

  • Hugging someone with the virus
  • Using the same toilet as someone with the virus
  • Being in the same space as someone with the virus

Return To School Or Child Care

Hepatitis B Symptoms, Treatment, Causes, What is Hepatitis B
  • Your child may return to normal daily activity when the childs doctor or the doctor who discharges him or her from the hospital says it is OK. This will be when your child is no longer jaundiced or vomiting.
  • A child who scratches, bites or “gets into fights, has an overall skin condition, or a bleeding problem should probably not attend child care while he or she has hepatitis. Your childs doctor can help you make this decision.

If you have any questions, be sure to ask your childs doctor or nurse.

HH-I-43 10/76, Revised 10/15 Copyright 1976, Nationwide Childrens Hospital

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Can You Get Hepatitis From Saliva

People with chronic Hepatitis C are advised not to share toothbrushes, razors, nail clippers or other personal articles that may have potentially been in contact with their blood.

While there is very little emphasis on saliva as a vehicle of Hepatitis C transmission, under the right circumstances there is some evidence to the contrary:

  • As published in the September 2006 issue of Journal of Viral Hepatitis, German researchers investigated the transmission of Hepatitis C via a toothbrush. A team from the University of Regensburg examined 30 patients with Hepatitis C to see whether they had contaminated their toothbrushes with the virus. They collected saliva samples from infected patients both before and after tooth brushing. Figures showed that 30 percent of infected patients tested positive for traces of the virus in their saliva before brushing their teeth, while 38 percent tested positive in their saliva after brushing. Additionally, about 40 percent of the water used to rinse the infected toothbrushes tested positive for the virus. This information confirms the caution against toothbrush sharing, and also sounds a possible Hepatitis C transitory alarm.
  • Hepatitis B May Be Contracted Through Deep Kissing Expert

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    Dr Modupe Ajibawo

    Dr Modupe Ajibawo is a locum consultant family physician at the Federal Medical Centre, Ebute Meta, Lagos. She tells ALEXANDER OKERE about hepatitis, its management and treatment

    What is hepatitis?

    Hepatitis means inflammation or swelling of the liver. This impairs the functions of the liver and, in turn, affects the well-being of the affected individual. The liver is a very important organ occupying the right upper part of the abdomen. It produces important proteins that maintain pressure in the blood and help transport fats, hormones and drugs around the body. It also produces factors responsible for blood clotting. It filters the blood and helps in the breakdown of drugs, toxins, bacteria and other wastes and their removal from the body. The liver produces bile that helps digestion.

    What are the general causes of hepatitis?

    Many things can cause injury to the liver, leading to inflammation. Hepatitis viruses are the most common causes of hepatitis in the world. Other viral causes of hepatitis include Epstein-Barr virus and yellow fever virus. Hepatitis can also be caused by non-viral infections like toxoplasma, certain drugs, alcohol, poisons like aflatoxins and other medical conditions. Aflatoxins are a group of poisons produced by certain fungi found on agricultural produce, like groundnuts and grain that have been stored improperly.

    What are the different types of hepatitis and their major causes?

    How are they transmitted?

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    Can You Get Hepatitis From Kissing

    All possibilities must be considered in trying to determine how unknown sources of Hepatitis C infection took place. Although Hepatitis C has been detected in saliva, the necessary conditions render it unlikelybut not impossibleto be transmitted by kissing or through the sharing of a toothbrush.

    Before anybody panics about these potential risks, remember that there are conditions accompanying these possible modes of transmission:

    • The person with the virus must have a viral load over one million.
    • Both parties involved have gum disease.

    While experts view the risk of transmitting this disease through saliva as extremely low, it is recommended to maintain good oral hygiene, and toothbrushes be used solely by their owners.


    What Is The Treatment For Hepatitis B

    Hepatitis B: Explained

    Prevention is recommended by receiving a vaccine for HBV.

    Receiving an injection of the hepatitis B immune globulin within 12 hours of coming in contact with the virus may help prevent the development of the disease.

    At present, there is no specific treatment for patients with acute hepatitis B. Acute infection is usually short and will often resolve on its own. Your health care provider may recommend rest, and adequate nutrition and fluids to help your body fight the infection. Hospitalization may be required for patients who suffer from severe vomiting and who are unable to maintain adequate nutritional levels. It may also be required to prevent the development of complications.

    While chronic infection cannot be cured, there are two standard treatments in Canada that may control the virus and prevent further damage to the liver.

    • Antiviral medications can fight the virus and slow damage to the liver.
    • Interferon which may be given for short periods and if effective, results in suppression of the virus.

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    Is Hepatitis B Curable

    Theres currently no known cure for hepatitis B, but there are many ways you can prevent infection and avoid transmitting the virus to others.

    The most effective and safe way to prevent hepatitis B is to get vaccinated. You can also use barrier methods, like condoms, when having sex and avoid sharing needles.

    How To Get Tested

    Oftentimes, people with hepatitis B dont have symptoms. That’s why it’s important to get tested if you had unprotected sex or shared a needle with someone who may have been infected. Hepatitis B is detected by a blood test and is usually included in routine sexually transmitted infection screenings.

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    Hepatitis C And Pregnancy: What You Need To Know

    If you have hepatitis C while pregnant, your baby may be at risk of contracting the disease. There is no cure for hepatitis C, but there are treatments available that can help you manage the disease. It is possible to treat symptoms with counseling and/or medication. If you are infected with hepatitis C, you should be tested and treated as soon as possible to reduce your risk of developing serious health problems.

    The Types Of Viral Hepatitis

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    There are five main types of viral hepatitis known as hepatitis A , hepatitis B , hepatitis C , hepatitis D , and hepatitis E . That said, there have been cases of acute hepatitis that could not be attributed to one of these five types of hepatitis viruses, alcohol, drugs, or autoimmune disease, which lead researchers to try to find another cause.

    Though the etiology of these viruses have not yet been fully established, researchers have identified three other types of viral hepatitis , which they have named hepatitis F , hepatitis G , and transfusions transmitted virus . As relatively new diseases and viral discoveries, information about them and how they work is relatively scarce. We do know, however, that cases of TTV have only been associated with hepatitis in people who have had a blood transfusion.

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    Infectious Diseases That Spread Through Saliva

    If you’ve ever heard of “mono,” then you know of at least one “kissing disease.” Mononucleosis is probably one of the most well-known infectious diseases among adolescents. While many people know that they can acquire a sexually transmitted disease from intercourse, there are also many infections that can be spread through mere kissing alone.

    Tips For Preventing Transmission Through Sex

    If youre sexually active with a person who has hepatitis C, there are ways that you can prevent contracting the virus. Likewise, if you have the virus, you can avoid transmitting it to others.

    A few steps you can take to reduce the likelihood of sexual transmission include:

    • using a condom during all sexual contact, including oral sex
    • learning to use all barrier devices correctly to prevent ripping or tearing during intercourse
    • resisting engaging in sexual contact when either partner has an open cut or wound on their genitals
    • being tested for STIs and asking sexual partners to be tested too
    • practicing sexual monogamy
    • using extra precautions if youre HIV-positive, as your chance of contracting HCV is much higher if you have HIV

    If you have hepatitis C, you should be honest with all sexual partners about your status. This ensures that youre both taking the proper precautions to prevent transmission.

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    How Hcv Is Spread

    The hepatitis C virus is transmitted primarily through blood to blood contact, meaning that a person can become infected with the virus should the blood of a person who carries the virus be introduced into another person’s bloodstream.

    Therefore, as with hepatitis B, blood transfusions , tattooing and body piercing, occupational exposure, medical procedures, and intravenous drug use can all lead to possible exposure to the virus. Unlike hepatitis B, however, sexual contact and childbirth have both been shown to be an inefficient route of exposure to HCV.

    The hepatitis G virus is thought to be transmitted in a similar way to HCV.

    Can Hepatitis B Spread Through Contaminated Water

    Can an asymptomatic person spread Hepatitis B? | Apollo Hospitals

    Breastfeeding, sharing eating utensils, hugging, kissing, holding hands, coughing, and sneezing are all examples of ways to contract hepatitis B. In contrast to some types of hepatitis, the virus is not spread through contaminated food or water.

    Hepatitis B: Avoiding Infection

    Although these precautions are taken, there is still a chance that you will catch hepatitis B from a person who has the virus. To avoid contracting hepatitis B, avoid contact with people who are infected. If you become infected, protect yourself from spread by washing your hands frequently and avoiding contact with blood and body fluids.

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    Hepatitis B Transmission And Risks


    • Sex with an infected partner
    • Acquired at birth from an infected mother
    • Sharing injection drug equipment
    • Contact with blood or open sores of an infected person
    • Needle stick or other skin puncture
    • Sharing items such as glucose monitors, razors or toothbrushes with an infected person.

    Hepatitis B may also be spread through non-injection drugs as a result of exposure to blood. An unsterilized instrument may transmit HBV during acupuncture, tattooing and body piercing. A human bite may spread hepatitis B.

    Hep B is not spread through food or water, sharing eating utensils, breast feeding, hugging, kissing, hand holding, coughing or sneezing.

    HBV may live outside the body for at least seven days and still be potentially infectious.

    Risk Factors

    Hepatitis B vaccination has dramatically reduced the risk of HBV in the United States. To further reduce risk of transmitting hepatitis B, all health care workers and pregnant women are screened and or immunized. Contact your health care provider for a blood test if you havent been immunized and have any of the following hep B risk factors:

    Hbv Dna Extraction From Mice Samples And Real

    A total of 50 µL of whole blood samples were collected from the mice every week after inoculation, and serum was separated. Saliva and tear specimens were collected from chimeric mice, using FTA cards. HBV DNA was extracted from 20 µL of mouse serum, using SMI-TEST EX-R& D . The extracted DNA was dissolved in 20 µL of nuclease-free water. HBV DNA was quantitatively measured using real-time PCR with the TaqMan PCR Core Reagent kit . Real-time PCR was performed in a 25-µL reaction mixture containing 0.125 µL Ampli Taq Gold with 0.2 µM primers , 0.3 µM probe , and 5 µL extracted DNA. The nucleotide position was based on GenBank accession number AB300361 . After incubation for 2 min at 50°C and for 10 min at 95°C, the PCR cycling program underwent 53 2-step cycles, one at 95°C for 20 seconds and the other at 60°C for 1 minute. TaqMan PCR was performed with an ABI Prism 7500 . In this study, the volume of serum collected from each mouse was 20 L, which is a very small amount compared with that used in human studies. Therefore, we considered the upper limit of detection of real-time PCR for a small-volume sample to be > 10 000 copies/mL, which provided us with more reliable results. This assay was standardized using mouse HBV DNA samples of known concentrations and the recombinant plasmid controls, as previously described .

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    How Do You Know If You Have Hepatitis B

    Signs and symptoms can vary, in particular by the age of the individual. Many individuals may not show symptoms . When symptoms develop, they include fever, joint pain, abdominal pain, fatigue, lack of appetite, nausea, vomiting, dark urine, clay-coloured bowel movements, or jaundice.

    Most infections are asymptomatic or mild. Occasionally, people with serious cases of hepatitis B require hospitalization. A very small proportion of these patients develop a critical form of the disease called “fulminant” hepatitis B. This condition results from a sudden breakdown of liver function.

    How Common Is It

    Common Bile Duct Illustrations, Royalty

    In 2006, the Public Health Agency of Canada reported the incidence of HBV as 2.0 cases for every 100,000 or about 650 cases reported annually in Canada. In the year 2013, the incident rate was 0.5 per 100,000 . Incidence of the disease varies from region to region but has been declining due to increasing use of the vaccine and universal immunization programs.

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    Who Is Most At Risk For Chronic Disease

    The likelihood that an HBV infection will become chronic depends upon the age at which a person becomes infected, with young children who become infected with HBV being the most likely to develop chronic infections.

    About 90% of infants infected during the first year of life develop chronic infections 30% to 50% of children infected between one to four years of age develop chronic infections. About 25% of adults who become chronically infected during childhood die from HBV-related liver cancer or cirrhosis. About 90% of healthy adults who are infected with HBV will recover and be completely rid of the virus within six months.

    A Closer Look At Hepatitis Transmission

    Here’s a more detailed look at how different types of hepatitis are transmitted:

    • Hepatitis A is transmitted by contaminated food and water and is thus fecal-oral.
    • Hepatitis B is transmitted by blood, needles, and sex. Hepatitis B can also be passed along during delivery from a mother to her newborn.
    • Hepatitis C is transmitted by needles and blood.
    • Hepatitis E is transmitted by means of contaminated water. Like hepatitis A, hepatitis E is fecal-oral.

    Like B and C, type D transmits to a person who already has hepatitis B and spreads by blood, needles, and sex. Hepatitis D can transmit during delivery from a mother to her newborn, but this is rare.

  • Limeres Posse J, Diz Dios P, Scully, C. Viral Diseases Transmissable by Kissing.Saliva Protection and Transmissible Diseases. 2017 : 5392. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-813681-2.00004-4

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    Other Body Fluids And Tissues

    Synovial fluid , amniotic fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, and peritoneal fluid can contain the hepatitis B virus, but the risk of transmission to workers is not known.

    Feces, nasal secretions, sputum, sweat, tears, urine, and vomit have not been implicated in the spread of hepatitis B. Unless they are visibly contaminated with blood, the risk of contracting hepatitis B from these fluids in the workplace is very low.

    Hepatitis B is not transmitted by casual contact. For example, hospital employees who have no contact with blood, blood products, or blood-contaminated fluids are at no greater risk than the general public. However, the virus can spread through intimate contact with carriers in a household setting, possibly because of frequent physical contact with small cuts or skin rashes. The virus can also spread through biting and possibly by the sharing of toothbrushes or razors. It is not spread through sneezing, coughing, hand holding, hugging, kissing, breastfeeding, sharing eating utensils, water or food.

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