Myth: Once Hepatitis Is Treated And Cured Alcohol Can Be Consumed
Fact: All kinds of alcohol should be avoided for 6 months post recovering from any kind of Hepatitis. This is because the virus affects the liver and the damage caused takes up to 6 months to heal and recover. In cases where the hepatitis leads to chronic liver diseases, alcohol consumption needs to be stopped for life.
Testing Of Hcv Stability In Different Body Liquids
To test if HCV stability changes in different body liquids, virus diluted in tears , CSF , semen , or saliva were incubated at room temperature for the respective time period. Effect of body liquid on HCV stability was compared to a virus suspension containing the respective amount of PBS. After the incubation period, target cells were infected in a limiting dilution assay on Huh7.5 cells. The TCID50 was determined 72 h post infection as described before .
How Long Can A Virus Live Outside A Body
Asked by: Chaudhary Nikul, India
Viruses can live for a surprisingly long time outside of a body, depending on conditions such as moisture and temperature. They tend to live longer on water-resistant surfaces, such as stainless steel and plastics.
A cold virus can sometimes survive on indoor surfaces for several days, although its ability to cause infection drops dramatically over time.
Flu viruses can survive in the air for several hours, especially at lower temperatures, and on hard surfaces they can survive and remain infectious for 24 hours.
Enteric viruses, such as norovirus and hepatitis A, can survive for weeks on a surface if conditions are suitable. The norovirus is known for causing sickness outbreaks in schools, cruise ships and hospitals.
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Hepatitis A Vaccine And International Travel
Who should get the hepatitis A vaccine before traveling internationally?
All unvaccinated people, along with those who have never had hepatitis A, should be vaccinated before traveling to countries where hepatitis A is common. Travelers to urban areas, resorts, and luxury hotels in countries where hepatitis A is common are still at risk. International travelers have been infected, even though they regularly washed their hands and were careful about what they drank and ate. Those who are too young or cant get vaccinated because of a previous, life-threatening reaction to the hepatitis A vaccine or vaccine component should receive immune globulin. Travelers to other countries where hepatitis A does not commonly occur are not recommended to receive hepatitis A vaccine before travel.
How soon before travel should I get the hepatitis A vaccine?
You should get the first dose of hepatitis A vaccine as soon as you plan international travel to a country where hepatitis A is common. The vaccine will provide some protection even if you get vaccinated closer to departure. For older adults , people who are immunocompromised, and people with chronic liver disease or other chronic medical conditions the health-care provider may consider, based on several factors, giving an injection of immune globulin at the same time in different limbs.
What should I do if I am traveling internationally but cannot receive hepatitis A vaccine?
Myth: All Hepatitis Viruses Are The Same
Fact: Hepatitis A, B, C, D, E are different kinds of viruses. They have different modes of transmission and manifestations. While A and E are transmitted by ingestion of contaminated food, B and C are transmitted by blood . Hepatitis D occurs only in patients affected by Hepatitis B through direct contact with infectious blood.
How Is Hepatitis C Transmitted
The hepatitis C virus is spread primarily by exposure to blood.
People may get hepatitis C from needles, through exposure to blood in the workplace, from unsterile equipment used for body piercing, tattoos or acupuncture, exposure to dental or medical practices with poor infection control practices or by sharing personal care items including toothbrushes, nail clippers, razors, scissors with infected people. Sharing drug paraphernalia such as needles, spoons, pipes, and straws contaminated with blood has also been associated with a risk. The risk of getting this virus from a blood transfusion is minimal but still exists. All donated blood is screened for the hepatitis C virus.
Hepatitis C has been transmitted between sex partners. It has also been transmitted, although rarely, among household members, possibly because of frequent physical contact with small cuts or skin rashes. An infected mother can pass HCV to her child at birth.
There is no evidence that hepatitis C virus is spread by casual contact. Sneezing, coughing, kissing, and hugging do not pose the risk for hepatitis C. In addition, there is no evidence that hepatitis C virus is spread by food or water.
The hepatitis C virus can survive on surfaces outside the body for up to 3 weeks.
Semen Does Not Enhance Or Abrogate Hcv Infectivity
Hepatitis C virus can be transmitted through sexual intercourse. found that the maximum incidence rate of HCV transmission by sex was 0.07% per year, which is lower compared to other sexually transmitted diseases like HIV or herpes simplex virus type 2 . Especially for HIV, it has been described that semen enhances HIV infectivity , thereby facilitating viral transmission. We next investigated the influence of semen on HCV infectivity. To this end, we collected semen from healthy volunteers and incubated it together with HCV in suspension for 24 h at room temperature. Infectivity was determined by a limiting dilution assay after 72 h. In total, a pool of 30 different semen samples, encompassing semen samples from 10 individual donors were used. As shown in Figure , none of the tested semen samples enhanced or abrogated HCV infectivity under these experimental conditions . These results indicate that potential infectious virus present in semen remains stable and infectivity seems not to be influenced by seminal fluid.
Stability of HCV in human semen. One part of virus was added to nine parts of semen and incubated for 24 h at room temperature. A pool of 30 different semen samples and semen samples from nine individual donors were used . In the untreated control the sperm was replaced with PBS . Viral titers were determined by a limiting dilution assay to calculate the tissue culture infection dose , n.s., not significant.
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Can You Get Hepatitis C From Kissing Or Sharing Eating Utensils
Hepatitis C passes between people through contact with infected blood. An uninfected person must encounter an infected persons blood in some way to get hepatitis C.
It cant be spread through kissing, holding hands, or hugging. Its also not spread through contact with food or beverage, so you cant contract hepatitis C by sharing eating utensils or a drinking glass with an infected person.
What Do Hepatitis C Symptoms Look Like
Hepatitis C infection can go through two stages: acute and chronic. In the early, or acute stage, most people don’t have symptoms. If they do develop symptoms, these can include:
- flu-like symptoms, tiredness, high temperature and aches and pains
- loss of appetite
- tummy pain
- jaundice, meaning your skin and the whites of your eyes turn yellow
While for some people, the infection will clear without treatment, in most cases, acute infection will develop into long-term chronic infection. Chronic infection may not become apparent for a number of years until the liver displays signs of damage. These symptoms can include:
- mental confusion and depression these are specific to hepatitis C
- constantly feeling tired
- nausea, vomiting or tummy pain
- dark urine
- feeling bloated
- joint and muscle pain
Without treatment, chronic hepatitis C can cause scarring of the liver , which can cause the liver to stop working properly. A small number of people with cirrhosis develop liver cancer and these complications can lead to death. Other than a liver transplant, theres no cure for cirrhosis. However, treatments can help relieve some of the symptoms.
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Sharing Toothbrushes Scissors And Razors
There’s a potential risk that hepatitis C may be passed on through sharing items such as toothbrushes, razors and scissors, as they can become contaminated with infected blood.
Equipment used by hairdressers, such as scissors and clippers, can pose a risk if it has been contaminated with infected blood and not sterilised or cleaned between customers. However, most salons operate to high standards, so this risk is low.
Blood And Vessel Problems
People with hepatitis C often get a condition called cryoglobulinemia. This happens when certain proteins in your blood stick together in cold weather. They can build up in vessels and block blood flow, which causes swelling and damage. The condition can affect your skin, organs, nerves, and joints.
Hepatitis C also can cause problems with blood itself. You may not make enough white blood cells, which fight infections, or platelets, which help your blood clot.
The infection can also make you bruise easily or get red or purple spots under your skin. Those are signs of a bleeding disorder called immune thrombocytopenic purpura.
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Hepatitis C Symptoms & Treatment
Hepatitis C is found in infected blood. It is also rarely found in semen and vaginal fluids.
Hepatitis C is mainly passed on through using contaminated needles and syringes or sharing other items with infected blood on them. It can also be passed on through unprotected sex, especially when blood is present.
You can prevent hepatitis C by never sharing needles and syringes, practising safer sex, and avoiding unlicensed tattoo parlours and acupuncturists.
Hepatitis C will often not have any noticeable symptoms, but a simple blood test carried out by a healthcare professional will show whether you have hepatitis C.
In the early stages, some peoples bodies can clear a hepatitis C infection on their own, others may develop chronic hepatitis C and will need to take antiviral treatment to cure the infection.
Without treatment, chronic hepatitis C can lead to permanent liver damage.
Hepatitis C is part of a group of hepatitis viruses that attack the liver.
Its mainly passed on through contaminated needles, either from injecting drugs or from needle stick injuries in healthcare settings. It can also be transmitted sexually, especially during anal sex or other types of sex that may involve blood.
Some groups are more at risk of getting hepatitis C than others, including people who use drugs, people in prisons, men who have sex with men, health workers and people living with HIV.
Is It True That If You Get A Piercing Or Tattoo Youll Get Hepatitis C
Even licensed, commercial tattoo studios can have spotty hygiene and cleaning practices. If the equipment the tattoo artist or piercer uses is clean and sterile, you dont have an increased risk of getting hepatitis C.
If the equipment looks less then pristine or you have any hesitations after meeting with the artist, reconsider your choice, and look for a more sterile alternative.
very rare . This statistic is based on heterosexual partners in monogamous sexual relationships.
Your risk for contracting hepatitis C through a sexual encounter is higher if you have multiple partners, engage in rough sex, or already have an STD.
Today, most people are infected with hepatitis C after sharing dirty needles or other paraphernalia for drug use. In rare cases, you can contract hepatitis C by using a tool that has an infected persons blood on it, such as toothbrushes and razors.
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Electroporation Of Viral Rna And Production Of Cell Culture
For electroporation of HCV RNA into Huh7.5 cells, single-cell suspensions were prepared by trypsinization of monolayers and subsequent resuspension with DMEM complete. Huh7.5 cells were washed with phosphate-buffered saline , counted and resuspended at 1.5 × 107 cells per mL in cytomix containing 2 mM ATP and 5 mM glutathione. Unless otherwise stated, 10 g of in vitro transcribed RNA was mixed with 400 L cell suspension by pipetting and then electroporated with a Gene Pulser system in a cuvette with a gap width of 0.4 cm at 975 F and 270 V. Cells were immediately transferred to 16 mL complete DMEM and 8 mL of the cell suspension was seeded per well. Virus-containing culture fluids were harvested after 48, 72, and 96 h and concentrated using centricons . For determination of viral infectivity cell-free supernatants were used to infect naive Huh7.5 target cells.
Injecting Drug Use And Hcv
Worldwide, most HCV infections are related to injection drug use. This includes medical and non-medical settings, through sharing needles and other equipment.
HCV is a tougher and smaller virus than HIV. It can remain infectious for days to weeks in syringes, cookers, cotton, water, measuring syringes and ties.
Cleaning syringes with bleach reduces the risk of HIV transmission, but it is less effective against HCV.
Using clean needles and your own works each time you inject stops both HIV and HCV transmission .
It also reduces the risk of other infections.
If you caught HIV from drug use, you were probably infected with HCV first, before HIV. This is because HCV is a smaller virus that is not easily killed by bleach, making it more infectious than HIV.
Sharing injecting recreational drugs including mephedrone and crystal meth in UK gay clubs and/or sex parties has a high risk of HCV transmission, see this link.
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How Do You Get Hepatitis C
Just like hepatitis B, you can get this type by sharing needles or having contact with infected blood. You can also catch it by having sex with somebody who’s infected, but that’s less common.
If you had a blood transfusion before new screening rules were put in place in 1992, you are at risk for hepatitis C. If not, the blood used in transfusions today is safe. It gets checked beforehand to make sure it’s free of the virus that causes hepatitis B and C.
It’s rare, but if you’re pregnant and have the disease, it’s possible to pass it to your newborn.
There are some myths out there about how you get hepatitis C, so let’s set the record straight. It’s not spread by food and water . And you canât spread it by doing any of these things:
- Joint pain
See your doctor as soon as possible if you have any of these symptoms.
Sometimes, people have no symptoms. To be sure you have hepatitis, youâll need to get tested.
Myth: Hepatitis Patients Can Eat Only Bland And Boiled Food
Fact: It is important for Hepatitis patients to maintain good and adequate nutrition. This necessarily does not mean that the food has to be boiled and bland especially in the presence of symptoms like nausea and vomiting where food cravings need to be fulfilled. Adding turmeric to food is recommended as it has strong anti-inflammatory properties. However, consumption of glucose solution, sugarcane juice, bittergourd and radish should be avoided.
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Conditions By Which Hiv Can Survive
If HIV were to survive outside of the body for more than a few minutes, it could only do so under these specific environmental conditions:
- Colder temperatures: Temperatures below 39 degrees Fahrenheit are considered ideal for HIV to thrive. By contrast, HIV does not do well at room temperature and continues to decline as it reaches and exceeds body temperature .
- Ideal pH: The ideal pH level for HIV is between 7.0 and 8.0, with an optimal pH of 7.1. Anything above or below these levels is considered unsuitable for survival.
- Dried blood: HIV can survive in dried blood at room temperature for up to six days, although the concentrations of virus in dried blood will invariably be low to negligible.
- No UV exposure: HIV survives longer when is not exposed to ultraviolet radiation. UV light quickly degrades viral DNA as well as the lipids that make up the virus’ shell, rendering it incapable of attaching to and infecting other cells.
Even given these parameters, there has yet to be a documented case of infection by means of a discarded syringe in a public place.
In 2008, the largest retrospective study investigating child needlestick injuries concluded that not one case of HIV occurred following contact with a discarded needle.
Moreover, in 2015, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention could only confirm one infection by means of a needlestick injury since 1999, and that case involved a lab researcher who was working with a live HIV culture.
Hepatitis C: Who’s At Risk And How Long Does The Virus Survive Outside The Body
Hepatitis C is a contagious liver disease that ranges in severity from a mild illness lasting a few weeks to a serious, lifelong illness that attacks the liver.
Dr Suresh Singhvi
Hepatitis C is a contagious liver disease that ranges in severity from a mild illness lasting a few weeks to a serious, lifelong illness that attacks the liver. It results from infection with the Hepatitis C virus , which is spread primarily through contact with the blood of an infected person.
Who’s at risk?
Some people are at increased risk for Hepatitis C, including:
– Current injection drug users
– Past injection drug users, including those who injected only one time or many years ago
– Recipients of donated blood, blood products, and organs
– Hemodialysis patients or persons who spent many years on dialysis for kidney failure
– People who received body piercing or tattoos done with non-sterile instruments
– People with known exposures to the Hepatitis C virus, such as:
– Health care workers injured by needlesticks
– Recipients of blood or organs from a donor who tested positive for the Hepatitis C virus
– HIV-infected persons
– Children born to mothers infected with the Hepatitis C virus
Less common risks include:
– Having sexual contact with a person who is infected with the Hepatitis C virus
– Sharing personal care items, such as razors or toothbrushes, that may have come in contact with the blood of an infected person
Risk of a pregnant woman passing Hepatitis C to her baby
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