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What Is Hepatitis D And E

Ways Hepatitis B Is Spread

Viral hepatitis (A, B, C, D, E) – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment & pathology

Blood-to-blood and sexual contact

Most infections in Australia are associated with:

  • immigration from a high prevalence country
  • sharing injecting equipment
  • mother-to-baby transmission at or around the time of birth
  • child-to-child contact through open sores and wounds
  • tattooing or body piercing
  • household contact sharing razors and toothbrushes
  • receiving blood or blood products before 1971 when screening commenced for hepatitis B virus

Ways Hepatitis A Is Spread


Faeces containing the virus are transferred from the infected person to another persons mouth.

Most infections in Australia are associated with:

  • contaminated food, drink and eating utensils
  • hands contaminated via contact with nappies, toys or towels soiled with faeces from an infected person
  • oral/anal sexual contact
  • travel to countries where hepatitis A is endemic
  • injecting and non-injecting drug use

What Is Hepatitis D

Hepatitis D is a viral infection that causes liver inflammation and damage. Inflammation is swelling that occurs when tissues of the body become injured or infected. Inflammation can damage organs.

Viruses invade normal cells in your body. Many viruses cause infections that can spread from person to person.

The hepatitis D virus is unusual because it can only infect you when you also have a hepatitis B virus infection. In this way, hepatitis D is a double infection. You can protect yourself from hepatitis D by protecting yourself from hepatitis B by getting the hepatitis B vaccine.

Hepatitis D spreads the same way that hepatitis B spreads, through contact with an infected persons blood or other body fluids.

The hepatitis D virus can cause an acute or chronic infection, or both.

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Hepatitis A And E Symptoms

Hepatitis A and hepatitis E present with similar symptoms. The diseases may develop without any signs or symptoms, or symptoms may be nonspecific. If you experience any of the symptoms below for more than two weeks, make an appointment with a gastroenterologist.

There are three phases of hepatitis A and E, and symptoms may differ depending on the stage. Early in the disease, called the prodromal phase, symptoms may include:

What Is Hepatitis A

Hepatitis E: Causes, symptoms, and treatment

Hepatitis A accounts for 20 percent to 25 percent of hepatitis cases in developed countries. Hepatitis A is usually transmitted through the fecal-oral route, meaning a person somehow ingests contaminated feces from an infected person. If an infected person did not wash his or her hands properly after using the bathroom, the disease may spread from the persons hands. The incubation period is two to six weeks, during which the infected individual is contagious.

Another cause of hepatitis A is eating shellfish harvested from contaminated water. Developing countries experience hepatitis A epidemics caused by drinking water contaminated with raw sewage.

The prognosis for hepatitis A patients is excellent with self-limiting course, and recovery is complete. About 85 percent of people with hepatitis A recover within three months, and almost all recover within six months. The disease does not become chronic, and there are no long-term health implications.

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What Is The Difference Between Hepatitis A B C D E

Table Of ContentWhat Is The Difference Between Hepatitis A, B, C, D, E?

Our liver is one of the most important organs of the body to perform major bodily processes. When such a crucial organ undergoes problems like inflammation, the entire system suffers. The term given for inflammation of the liver is known as hepatitis. It is one of the leading causes of death, more deadly than HIV.

What Causes Hepatitis D

The hepatitis D virus causes hepatitis D. The hepatitis D virus spreads through contact with an infected persons blood or other body fluids. Contact can occur by

  • sharing drug needles or other drug materials with an infected person
  • having unprotected sex with an infected person
  • getting an accidental stick with a needle that was used on an infected person

The hepatitis D virus rarely spreads from mother to child during birth.

You cant get hepatitis D from

  • being coughed on or sneezed on by an infected person
  • drinking water or eating food
  • hugging an infected person
  • shaking hands or holding hands with an infected person
  • sharing spoons, forks, and other eating utensils
  • sitting next to an infected person

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What Are The 5 Types Of Hepatitis

The liver can undergo inflammation due to autoimmunity, alcohol consumption, drug abuse, etc. However, hepatitis due to viruses is the most common among them. Hepatitis can be classified as acute and chronic hepatitis depending on its duration and impact on the liver. Different types of hepatitis occur due to viral infections. It is essential to know about the five types of hepatitis because they significantly impact our society. Please keep reading to learn about ABCDE of hepatitis and how they differ from each other.

Transmission Of Hepatitis E

Viral Hepatitis: Comparing Hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E

Hepatitis is transmitted by consumption of food or water already contaminated with feces or stool of somebody already infected with hepatitis E. it could also be spread by consumption of undercooked food or meat or touching an infected animal. There is no evidence to show that it could be transmitted during sex so dont be scared, you cant contact it by sex. Also, it is almost not possible you contact it more than once in a lifetime.

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The Hepatitis E Virus


The hepatitis E virus is an RNA virus which is positive-sense, non-enveloped and single-stranded. It is also a self-limiting virus which means it limits its growth by its actions. This means hepatitis E will not lead to any long-term illness or sickness as the host recovers by themselves. It has a fecal to mouth transmission route. It could be clinically compared with hepatitis A. hepatitis e could sometimes develop into an acute severe disease which is rare. Hepatitis e could be very dangerous for a pregnant woman as they mostly die of it.

Hepatitis And The Liver

Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver. The liver is important for a range of functions in the body. These include regulating metabolism, making proteins, storing vitamins and iron, removing toxins and producing bile.

If the liver doesnt work properly, it can cause serious illness or sometimes even death.

Hepatitis may be caused by infection, viruses, chemicals, alcohol and other drug use and other factors.

Chronic hepatitis means ongoing inflammation of the liver, irrespective of the underlying cause.

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Did You Know Hepatitis Facts

  • Did you know those diagnosed with both hepatitis b and d are coinfectious?
  • Did you know anyone with chronic hepatitis b and develops hepatitis d is called superinfection?
  • Did you know that people who have had any kind of viral hepatitis since they are young are not allowed to donate blood?
  • Did you know there are four genomes of hepatitis E which infect humans only?
  • Did you know hepatitis E is the most common causative of acute viral hepatitis worldwide?

What Is Hepatitis B

Causes Of Hepatitis D. World Hepatitis Day. Infographics. Vector ...

Hepatitis B virus spreads through blood, saliva, tears etc. Still, unlike hepatitis A it is not concentrated in urine, sweat or faeces. One can spread this virus by sharing personal products like toothbrushes, syringes, needles for drug use, etc. This virus can also invade your body if you get tattoos under unhygienic conditions through infected needles.

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Treatment And Prevention Of Hepatitis D Virus

There is no specific treatment for hepatitis d virus but vaccination against hepatitis B prevents hepatitis D from coming into the body since hepatitis D needs hepatitis B to survive and multiply. But a vaccination for hepatitis B virus does not prevent or stop hepatitis d for somebody already infected with hepatitis B. safe injection practices, blood safety could also reduce transmission. All other prevention of hepatitis B could all prevent one from getting both hepatitis B and D for uninfected persons. Read more about the prevention of hepatitis B here.

Prevention Of Hepatitis Infection:

Hepatitis infections, in general, are preventable, and some can be prevented through vaccinations. While vaccines are not readily available for all types of hepatitis, you can easily control the infection by altering your lifestyle. Hygiene is the key to prevention. If you are confident that your drinking water and food are not contaminated, you are good to go. Pay attention to personal hygiene, especially if you stay with an infected person. If you are working in the healthcare field, be extra cautious not to touch blood or body fluids without gloves.

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What Are The Complications Of Chronic Hepatitis D

Chronic hepatitis D may lead to cirrhosis, liver failure, and liver cancer. People who have chronic hepatitis B and D are more likely to develop these complications than people who have chronic hepatitis B alone.20 Early diagnosis and treatment of chronic hepatitis B and D can lower your chances of developing serious health problems.

Enhancing Healthcare Team Outcomes

What is hepatitis?

Hepatitis D only occurs in patients with hepatitis B. Thus, healthcare workers, including the nurse practitioner should consider serological testing for HDV in patients with hepatitis B. This can be obtained by detection of total anti-HDV antibody followed by confirmatory staining for HDAg in liver tissues and/or measurement of serum HDV RNA. As HBV replication is suppressed in chronic HDV infection, hepatitis B e-antibodies are typically present.

As HDV depends on HBV, prevention can be achieved with hepatitis B vaccination. If the host is immune to HBV, they are subsequently protected against HDV. Patients who are at risk of contracting HDV infection should be encouraged to receive the hepatitis B vaccine.

At the moment there is no specific treatment for hepatitis D but unlike hepatitis B, the former is a benign infection.

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Clinical And Laboratory Criteria For Diagnosis

Because cases of hepatitis D are not clinically distinguishable from other types of acute viral hepatitis, diagnosis can be confirmed only by testing for the presence of antibodies against HDV and/or HDV RNA. HDV infection should be considered in any person with a positive hepatitis B surface antigen who has severe symptoms of hepatitis or acute exacerbations.

Risk Of Becoming Chronic

The risk for chronic infection varies according to the age at infection and is greatest among young children. Approximately 90% of infants and 25%50% of children aged 15 years will remain chronically infected with HBV. By contrast, approximately 95% of adults recover completely from HBV infection and do not become chronically infected

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What Is The Difference Between Hepatitis D And E

Hepatitis D and Hepatitis E share some differences, but the most relevant is the mechanism of transmission: in HDV it is via permucosa or percutaneous, which denotes by way of, or through, a mucous membrane or skin while in the case of HEV typically require oro-fecal transmission, caused by the consumption of contaminated water.

Symptoms Of Hepatitis D

Diagnosis Of Hepatitis D. World Hepatitis Day. Infographics. Vector ...

As discussed above you cant have hepatitis D without developing hepatitis B earlier. This is because of the kind of virus hepatitis D is. Therefore, when any of the symptoms of hepatitis B is noticed please visit the nearest hospital for a checkup. The symptoms of hepatitis B are listed in my previous episode of this series but here is a quick recap for those who are just reading this.

Body weakness which includes

  • Body fever, loss of appetite, vomit, and pain in stomach.

Any of these symptoms need to be taken care of although hepatitis B virus could be cured naturally the patient still needs to be careful to prevent hepatitis D from coming in.

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Immunizations: Hepatitis D Virus

Hepatitis D is a serious liver disease. It is caused by an infection from the hepatitis D virus . Hepatitis D is also known as delta hepatitis.

The illness can be acute or chronic. That means the illness can either cause serious short-term health problems or could cause life-long illness that affects you for the rest of your life. Hepatitis D cases are rare in the United States.

Hepatitis D is an incomplete virus. It needs help from the hepatitis B virus to infect people. Hepatitis D only infects people who have the hepatitis B virus.

The Hepatitis D Virus


The Hepatitis D virus, also known as hepatitis delta virus is an RNA virus. It is a special kind of virus because it is a subviral satellite which means the host needs to be infected with hepatitis B before it can begin to multiply. Infection of a patient with hepatitis b virus causes rapid liver cirrhosis or Hepatocellular carcinoma which is the most common source of death for people who have liver cirrhosis. As of this moment, there is no effective treatment for hepatitis D.The hepatitis D virus is small and spherical in nature with about 26nM in diameter. It is said to have an outer coating consisting of three kinds of hepatitis B protein which are large, medium and small hepatitis B surface antigens.

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Incidence Of Hepatitis D In The United States

HDV infection is uncommon in the United States, where most cases occur among people who migrate or travel to the United States from countries with high HDV endemicity. Because hepatitis D is not a nationally notifiable condition, the actual number of hepatitis D cases in the United States is unknown

HBV/HDV coinfection occurs when a person simultaneously becomes infected with both HBV and HDV, whereas HDV superinfection occurs when a person who is already chronically infected with HBV acquires HDV. Although acute HBV/HDV coinfections can resolve, HDV superinfection can lead to rapid progression of the already present HBV infection, resulting in liver cirrhosis and liver failure. These outcomes occur within 510 years in 70%80% and within 12 years in 15% of people with chronic HBV/HDV infection

What Is Hepatitis E

Hepatitis A, B, C, D, E Nursing Symptoms, Treatment, Causes, NCLEX

Hepatitis E, also called enteric hepatitis , is similar to hepatitis A, and more prevalent in Asia and Africa. It is also transmitted through the fecal-oral route. It is generally not fatal, though it is more serious in women during pregnancy and can cause fetal complications. Most patients with hepatitis E recover completely.

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How Can Hepatitis D Be Prevented

The only known way to prevent hepatitis D is to avoid infection with hepatitis B. You can take the following preventive measures to reduce your risk for hepatitis B:

  • Get vaccinated. Theres a vaccine for hepatitis B that all children should receive. Adults who are at high risk for infection, such as those who use intravenous drugs, should also be vaccinated. The vaccination is usually given in a series of three injections over a period of six months.
  • Use protection. Always practice safe sex by using a condom with all of your sexual partners. You should never engage in unprotected sex unless youre certain your partner isnt infected with hepatitis or any other sexually transmitted infection.
  • Avoid or stop using recreational drugs that can be injected, such as heroin or cocaine. If youre unable to stop using drugs, make sure to use a sterile needle each time you inject them. Never share needles with other people.
  • Be cautious about tattoos and piercings. Go to a trustworthy shop whenever you get a piercing or tattoo. Ask how the equipment is cleaned and make sure the employees use sterile needles.

Last medically reviewed on May 17, 2018

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  • 2021. 7. 2. ·AASLD-IDSA HCV Guidance Panel. Hepatitis C guidance 2018 update: AASLD-IDSA recommendations for testing, managing, and treating hepatitis C virus infection. Clin Infect Dis 2018 67: 1477-1492 …
  • 2017. 7. 12. ·The BOP- recommended approach to evaluation and management of HCV includes five basic steps. STEP1: Test for HCV infection with anti-HCV test. See Section 2, Screening for HCV Infection. All sentenced inmates Diagnostic evaluation of other conditions Upon inmate request
  • 2013. 11. 6. ·Epidemiology. In the United States, the prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection is 0.2% among children aged 1 to 11 years and 0.4% among adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. 1,2 Modeling based on a recent U.S. census predicts that ~7,200 new cases of pediatric HCV infection occur annually. 3 At least six HCV genotypes are known , with
  • 2019. 8. 27. ·HCV Screening. The US Preventive Services Task Force has posted new draft recommendations advising that essentially all US adults aged 18 to 79 years should be screened for hepatitis C virus (HCV
  • The USPSTF recommends screening for hepatitis C virus infection in adults aged 18 to 79 years. Grade: B Recommendation. Resources Newly Reported Hepatitis C Infections and Recommendations for Universal Hepatitis C Screening Slide set from April 9, 2020 webinar

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Treatment Of Hepatitis D

  • Supportive care

No treatments attenuate acute viral hepatitis, including hepatitis D. Alcohol should be avoided because it can increase liver damage. Restrictions on diet or activity, including commonly prescribed bed rest, have no scientific basis.

The only drug widely recommended for treatment of chronic hepatitis D is interferon-alfa, although pegylated interferon-alpha is likely equally effective. Treatment for 1 year is recommended, although whether longer treatment courses are more effective has not been established. Bulevirtide is available for treatment of hepatitis D in Europe. Hepatitis D is also treated in the context of clinical trials.

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