Thursday, June 23, 2022

What Is Hepatitis C Screening

Where Can A Person Get Tested

Hepatitis C Screening

A person can have an HCV antibody test at a primary care physicians office, a clinic, or a local laboratory.

Costs vary, depending on whether a person has insurance and which pharmacy they use. Some pharmaceutical companies cover copayments and provide the treatment for free.

Medicare covers testing costs for people:

  • with a high risk of hepatitis C
  • who had blood infusions before 1992
  • who were born between 1945 and 1965

The Department of Veterans Affairs covers most of the associated costs for veterans enrolled in its healthcare program.

The healthcare professional who ordered the test should explain the results in detail, as well as the next steps, if treatment is necessary.

The following table describes several outcomes of an HCV test, according to information from the

The person once had or currently has the infection.The person needs a second test to confirm whether they have a current infection.
HCV antibody reactive, HCV RNA detectedThis means that the person has the infection.The doctor will provide counseling and treatment.
HCV antibody reactive, HCV RNA undetectedThe person does not have the infection.Usually, there is no need for further action, but the doctor may recommend the second test.

The second test mentioned above is called a nucleic acid test. It detects a current infection by checking whether there is any of the viruss RNA in the blood.

Who Is Most At Risk Of Contracting Hepatitis C

You have a high risk of contracting hepatitis C if you:

  • use or have used injection drugs even if it was just once or many years ago
  • have received blood or blood products or an organ transplant before July 1990 in Canada
  • have been in jail or
  • have been injected or scratched during vaccination, surgery, blood transfusion or a religious/ceremonial ritual in regions where hepatitis C is common.

You have a high moderate risk of contracting hepatitis C if you:

  • have tattoos or body piercing
  • have multiple sexual partners
  • have a sexually transmitted infection , including HIV or lymphogranuloma venereum
  • have experienced traumatic sex or rough sex or have used sex toys or fisting that can tear body tissue
  • have vaginal sex during menstruation
  • have received a kidney treatment
  • have received an accidental injury from a needle or syringe
  • have another infectious disease
  • were born to a hepatitis C infected mother or
  • have a sexual partner infected with hepatitis C.

Hepatitis C is NOT passed from person to person by:

  • coughing, sneezing
  • breastfeeding unless your nipples are cracked and bleeding or
  • oral sex, unless blood is present.

Hepatitis C Screening: Questions For The Doctor

  • Talking with the Doctor
  • Hepatitis C Screening: Questions for the doctor
  • Hepatitis C is a serious liver disease caused by the hepatitis C virus . The most common way to get hepatitis C is by coming into contact with the blood of someone who has it.

    Everyone ages 18 to 79 needs to get tested for hepatitis C at least once.

    Many people who have hepatitis C live for years without feeling sick. But the virus can still damage your liver even when there arent any symptoms. You could also spread the virus to others without knowing it.

    The only way to know for sure if you have hepatitis C is to get a blood test. Medicine can cure most cases of hepatitis C.

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    Free Hepatitis C Screening

    Hepatitis C is a viral infection that causes liver inflammation, sometimes leading to serious liver damage. Free walk in testing is available at DAP Health’s Orange Clinic.

    What is Hepatitis C?

    Hepatitis C is a liver infection caused by the hepatitis C virus . Hepatitis C is a blood-borne virus. Today, most people become infected with the hepatitis C virus by sharing needles or other equipment to inject drugs. For some people, hepatitis C is a short-term illness but for 70%85% of people who become infected with the hepatitis C virus, it becomes a long-term, chronic infection. Chronic hepatitis C is a serious disease than can result in long-term health problems, even death. Many people might not be aware of their infection because they are not clinically ill. There is no vaccine for hepatitis C. The best way to prevent hepatitis C is by avoiding behaviors that can spread the disease, especially injecting drugs.

    How is Hepatitis C Spread?

    Hepatitis C is usually spread when blood from a person infected with the Hepatitis C virus enters the body of someone who is not infected. Today, most people become infected with the Hepatitis C virus by sharing needles or other equipment to inject drugs. Before 1992, when widespread screening of the blood supply began in the United States, Hepatitis C was also commonly spread through blood transfusions and organ transplants.

    People can become infected with the Hepatitis C virus during such activities as

    Are You at Risk for Hepatitis C?

    How To Test For Hep C

    Hepatitis C Antibody

    If you suspect you may have a hepatitis C infection, taking a hepatitis C test can be a great start in addition to consulting your healthcare provider for next steps. Our at-home hepatitis C test is a convenient way to check for this virus. To check for hepatitis C with this test, you just collect a small sample of blood with a simple finger prick, then ship the sample to a lab for testing with the prepaid shipping label that comes with the kit.

    If your results from our hepatitis C test indicate that you do have this viral infection, share your results with your healthcare provider right away so you can take the next steps they recommend.

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    Addressing Hepatitis For The First Time

    It is crucial that a treatment counselor or health professional use a nonjudgmental and compassionate tone. Clients need to feel comfortable disclosing information about their health and risky behaviors. The following strategies can help initiate the conversation:

    • Display posters, literature, or other -related items that could help prompt the client to ask questions about hepatitis. .
    • Assess clients ability to discuss , based on their degree of openness in the counseling session, the amount of detail they provide in their responses, and the length of the therapeutic relationship.
    • Raise the subject in a way that avoids making clients feel defensive or afraid. Consider introducing the subject by making parallels with other conditions that have been discussed. Say, for example, You said you were tested for HIV several times. Were you ever tested for viral ? or You mentioned that your friend is sick with HIV. Have you been tested for HCV or HIV? Tell me about those tests.
    • Be patient and allow time for multiple, short conversations about the subject. This might ease feelings of fear, anxiety, or shame.

    Should Every Patient Of Hepatitis Be Screened For All Types Of Hepatitis As Included In The Panel Tests

    It is not necessary to conduct a hepatitis panel test on all patients. If the specific hepatitis virus that has caused the infection is known, then the specific hepatitis test may only be conducted. In some cases, doctors may want to know how the treatment is going on or to evaluate the progression of a disease. In such cases, only specific hepatitis tests are conducted.

    Also Check: What Are The Early Signs Of Hepatitis

    How Is A Person Tested For Hepatitis C

    A viral-load test is used to check for hepatitis C in the bloodstream. Usually, hepatitis C virus can be found in a persons bloodstream two weeks after he or she becomes infected.

    *Except in case of recent risk or in people with a weakened immune system**During the first six months after HCV infection, a person may spontaneously clear the virus if there was a recent risk, repeat viral-load testing to confirm chronic hepatitis C infection

    Preparation Prior To Transport

    Hepatitis C Screening

    Label the specimen container with the patients full name, date of collection and one other unique identifier such as the patients date of birth or Health Card Number. Failure to provide this information may result in rejection or testing delay.

    Centrifuge if using SST. Place specimen in biohazard bag and seal. Specimens should be stored at 2-8°C following collection.

    Specimens more than 7 days post collection will not be tested.

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    Time For Processing Hcv Ab Test Results

    The turnaround time for 3rd-generation EIAs is at least 1 day. Many labs do not perform the tests on site and must send specimens to another lab for processing, which may further increase the turnaround time.

    A point-of-care test is also available. The OraQuick® HCV Rapid Antibody Test is an FDA-approved test that can be performed with a fingerstick . It is also a CLIA-waived test and therefore can be used in clinic offices and outreach facilities. Results are reported as reactive or nonreactive within 20 minutes. Just as for the standard HCV Ab test done in the lab, a positive OraQuick® test must be confirmed by an HCV RNA test. The sensitivity and specificity of the test is similar to that of the laboratory-based assays.

    Hepatitis C Is Often Asymptomatic

    Offer testing to anyone with a risk factor or clinical indication.

    Risk factors:

    • shared drug-use equipment, even once
    • received personal services , with nonsterile equipment
    • exposed to blood during sexual activity
    • received blood, blood products, or organ transplant before 1992
    • received medical care where non-sterile equipment may have been used
    • born, travelled, or lived in a region where hepatitis C is common
    • born to a mother with hepatitis C
    • diagnosis of HIV or hepatitis B
    • clinical clues or symptoms of liver disease
    • occupational exposure

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    All Adults Pregnant Women And People With Risk Factors Should Get Tested For Hepatitis C

    Most people who get infected with hepatitis C virus develop a chronic, or lifelong, infection. Left untreated, chronic hepatitis C can cause serious health problems, including liver damage, cirrhosis, liver cancer, and even death. People can live without symptoms or feeling sick, so testing is the only way to know if you have hepatitis C. Getting tested is important to find out if you are infected so you can get lifesaving treatment that can cure hepatitis C.

    Other Indications For Measuring Anti

    Hepatitis C Testing

    In addition to screening, measuring anti-HCV can be useful in patients with symptoms of chronic liver disease patients who have other viral infections, including chronic fatigue, hepatitis B, HIV, intermittently abnormal ALT, or cirrhosis found on imaging tests or patients undergoing evaluation for organ transplantation.

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    Testing For Hepatitis C

    Two tests need to be done to discover if you have hepatitis C:

    • Antibody test: Which establishes whether you have ever been exposed to the hepatitis C virus.
    • PCR test: Which establishes whether the virus is still active and needs treating.

    The two tests can often be done from one sample of blood which means you may only need to provide the sample once. Both tests can then be done on your sample at the laboratory. However, some services will perform one test and then call you back for a further blood sample to perform the second test.

    Antibody test

    A hepatitis C antibody test is the first test undertaken. This is to determine whether you have ever been exposed to the hepatitis C virus. It works by testing for the presence of antibodies to the virus generated by your immune system. If you receive a negative hepatitis C antibody test but have been experiencing symptoms or have been recently exposed to hepatitis C, then you are likely to be advised to have a second test.

    It is important to remember that there is a ‘window period’. This is the short period of time when your immune system may not have had time to produce antibodies. It usually takes between six and twelve weeks for these antibodies to develop. However, in a few people it can take up to six months. So if you have the test within this window period and the result is negative, it does not necessarily mean that you don’t have the virus.

    PCR test

    What Does A Negative Hcv Antibody Test Result Mean

    A negative antibody test result usually means that the person has not been infected with hepatitis C .

    The body needs at least two months to make antibodies. People with weakened immune systems are not always able to produce antibodies. This might happen in people with autoimmune disorders , HIV-positive people with a CD4 cell count below < 200 cells/mm3, and people taking immunosuppressants.

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    Discussing Screening Results With Clients

    The medical personnel who ordered or arranged the screening test, not counselors, usually explain the results. Hepatitis screening should be part of the intake physical examination in an opioid treatment program, and medical personnel may report the results. However, the client may want to discuss the results with the counselor or ask the counselor questions.

    Anxiety might interfere with some clients ability to comprehend or retain information, which might need to be repeated.

    Suggestions for conversations with clients when the test results are negative include the following:

    • Explain results clearly and simply: So the HCV screening result was negative? This means that, as of 6 months ago, you did not have .
    • Emphasize that a negative result to an HCV test does not indicate to and that the client should take precautions to avoid . If a relapse to drug use occurs, advise clients to avoid sharing any drug paraphernalia or equipment. Specify that this includes cookers, cotton, water, needles, syringes, pipes, and straws.
    • Emphasize the importance of getting HAV and HBV vaccinations. Provide information about the availability of low- or no-cost vaccinations.

    Clients whose screening test results are positive for will need additional tests and examinationsusually with doctors who specialize in diseases of the liver to get accurate diagnoses and to determine their health status and the extent of liver damage. These tests are described in .

    Early Treatment Can Help You Prevent Liver Cancer Or Liver Failure

    Hepatitis Screening

    According to the CDC, out of every 100 people with hepatitis C:

    Getting tested and treated early can stop the hepatitis C virus from triggering cirrhosis or cancer. Your doctor will be able to keep an eye out for signs of liver trouble. They can start treatment before you serious damage starts.

    Show Sources

    CDC: “Hepatitis C FAQs for Health Professionals,” “Hepatitis C Fact Sheet,” “Hepatitis C: What to Expect When Getting Tested,” “Living with Chronic Hepatitis C.”

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    How Can I Protect Myself From Hepatitis C Infection

    If you dont have hepatitis C, you can help protect yourself from hepatitis C infection by

    • not sharing drug needles or other drug materials
    • wearing gloves if you have to touch another persons blood or open sores
    • making sure your tattoo artist or body piercer uses sterile tools and unopened ink
    • not sharing personal items such toothbrushes, razors, or nail clippers

    Hepatitis C can spread from person to person during sex, but the chances are low. People who have multiple sex partners, have HIV or other sexually transmitted diseases, or who engage in rough or anal sex have a higher chance of getting hepatitis C. Talk with your doctor about your risk of getting hepatitis C through sex and about safe sex practices, such as using a latex or polyurethane condom to help prevent the spread of hepatitis C.

    If you had hepatitis C in the past and your body fought off the infection or medicines cured the infection, you can get hepatitis C again. Follow the steps above, and talk with your doctor about how to protect yourself from another hepatitis C infection.

    If you think you may have been exposed to the hepatitis C virus, see your doctor as soon as possible. Early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent liver damage.

    Explanation Of Test Results:

    If this test result is positive, it means your body was exposed to the hepatitis C virus and made antibodies . However, it does not tell you whether you are still infected with hepatitis C. If the antibody test result is positive, you should be tested for hepatitis C RNA , which determines whether you are chronically infected. The lab will perform this RNA test automatically if your hepatitis C antibody test is positive.

    If the antibody test result is negative, it means you have not been infected with the hepatitis C virus, and further testing for hepatitis C usually is not needed.

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    Reflex Testing Closes The Gap From Screening To Confirmatory Testing

    Numerous studies from multiple contexts and care settings have demonstrated that the proportion of individuals who receive a confirmatory test is significantly higher in the context of reflex testing compared with standard two-step testing.7-10 For example, a pilot study from the United Kingdom examined the feasibility, clinical impact and cost of replacing standard two-step testing with reflex testing among primary care patients. Before the implementation of reflex testing, only 70% of primary care patients who were tested for hepatitis C completed confirmatory testing after receiving a positive hepatitis C antibody test. Following the implementation of reflex testing, 100% of patients had a confirmatory test completed after they received a positive hepatitis C antibody test.9

    You Can Protect Your Family And Friends

    Basic Hepatitis C Facts (English)

    You can pass the hepatitis C virus to others through your blood, even if you don’t have any symptoms. To prevent this, cover wounds carefully and avoid sharing:

    • Razors, nail clippers, toothbrushes, or diabetes supplies
    • Needles for injecting drugs, or steroids
    • Tools for body piercings or tattoos

    Hepatitis C doesn’t spread through kissing, coughing, sneezing, or sharing eating utensils. Although it’s uncommon, you can get it from unprotected sex.

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