Thursday, October 6, 2022

What Does It Mean To Have Hepatitis B

How Do Doctors Treat Hepatitis B

What is Hepatitis B? | How is Hepatitis B Transmitted?

Doctors typically dont treat hepatitis B unless it becomes chronic. Doctors may treat chronic hepatitis B with antiviral medicines that attack the virus.

Not everyone with chronic hepatitis B needs treatment. If blood tests show that hepatitis B could be damaging a persons liver, a doctor may prescribe antiviral medicines to lower the chances of liver damage and complications.

Medicines that you take by mouth include

A medicine that doctors can give as a shot is peginterferon alfa-2a .

The length of treatment varies. Hepatitis B medicines may cause side effects. Talk with your doctor about the side effects of treatment. Tell your doctor before taking any other prescription or over-the-counter medicines.

For safety reasons, you also should talk with your doctor before using dietary supplements, such as vitamins, or any complementary or alternative medicines or medical practices.

How Long Does It Last

According to the World Health Organization , the complete vaccine series induces protective antibody levels in of the infants, children, and adolescents who receive it.

Immune memory induced by the HBV vaccine can last for in healthy people. That said, studies into the duration of the protection that the vaccine offers are ongoing.

What Do Hepatitis B Test Results Mean

Hepatitis B test results help determine if HBV infection is negative or positive, and if positive, whether the infection is acute or chronic, or if recovery is complete. A combination of results are considered to identify and classify HBV infection status.

The following are some interpretations of hepatitis B test results:

Table: Hepatitis B test results and interpretations

Test

Also Check: How Does A Person Get Hepatitis C

What Should You Know About Pregnancy And Hepatitis B

A pregnant woman who has hepatitis B can pass the infection to her baby at delivery. This is true for both vaginal and cesarean deliveries.

You should ask your healthcare provider to test you for hepatitis B when you find out you are pregnant. However, while it is important for you and your healthcare provider to know if you do have hepatitis B, the condition should not affect the way that your pregnancy progresses.

If you do test positive, your provider may suggest that you contact another healthcare provider, a liver doctor, who is skilled in managing people with hepatitis B infections. You may have a high viral load and may need treatment during the last 3 months of your pregnancy. A viral load is the term for how much of the infection you have inside of you.

You can prevent your infant from getting hepatitis B infection by making sure that your baby gets the hepatitis B vaccine in the hours after they are born along with the hepatitis B immunoglobulin. These two shots are given in two different locations on the baby. They are the first shots needed.

Depending on the type of vaccine used, two or three more doses must be given, usually when the baby is 1 month old and then 6 months old, with the last by the time the baby is 1 year old. It is critical that all newborns get the hepatitis B vaccination, but even more important if you have hepatitis B yourself.

What Are The Symptoms Of Hepatitis B

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After the virus enters the body, there is an incubation period lasting 1.5 to 6 months until illness begins. During the acute phase most persons have no symptoms or might experience a mild illness. Symptoms of acute HBV infection, when present, may include:

  • Jaundice
  • Dark-colored urine, light-colored stools
  • Fever

During the chronic phase hepatitis B usually progresses silently, with no symptoms at all during the first 10-20 years. Signs of severe liver scarring may include:

  • Ascites
  • Star-shaped vein pattern developing on the swollen belly
  • Jaundice
  • Easy bruising and bleeding

Chronic HBV infection can lead to serious liver disease, liver scarring , and hepatocellular cancer.

Because symptoms of hepatitis B are usually absent, persons with risk for HBV infection should be tested. If you think you have hepatitis B, or are at risk for hepatitis B, you should contact your doctor.

Recommended Reading: Natural Cure For Hepatitis A

How Is The Hbcab Test Done

This is a blood test. A clinician will fill a tube with blood taken from a vein in your arm through which a needle is inserted. If you are giving blood, a sample will be taken from the blood you’re donating. The blood is sent to a lab, where it is tested. Sometimes HBcAb will be added on to lab orders when results from other tests indicate there may be a hepatitis B infection.

Diagnosis Of Hepatitis B

Blood tests are available to determine if you are or have been infected with hepatitis B. It may take 6 months from the time of infection before a blood test can detect antibodies to hepatitis B, so follow-up testing may be required. During this 6-month period, until you know whether you are infected or not, take action to prevent potential infection of other people.

There are also tests that can assess liver damage from hepatitis B. The interpretation of these tests can be complicated and specialist advice is needed, so talk to your doctor.

All pregnant women are tested for hepatitis B. If you are found to have chronic hepatitis B, your doctor can help reduce the risk of transferring the infection to your newborn child.

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What Happens After A Hepatitis B Infection

Some people carry the virus in their bodies and are contagious for the rest of their lives. They should not drink alcohol, and should check with their doctor before taking any medicines to make sure these won’t cause more liver damage.

Anyone who has ever tested positive for hepatitis B cannot be a blood donor.

Examples Of Hepatitis B In A Sentence

What is Hepatitis B and C? – Dr. Robert S. Brown

hepatitis B CNNhepatitis B NBC Newshepatitis BUSA TODAYhepatitis BWashington Posthepatitis B San Antonio Express-Newshepatitis BForbeshepatitis BABC Newshepatitis B STAT

These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word ‘hepatitis B.’ Views expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Send us feedback.

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What Should You Know About Hepatitis B Before You Travel

Hepatitis B is quite common in China and other Asian countries, where as many as 1 in 12 people have the virus, though many dont know it. Before traveling to those places, you should make sure youve been vaccinated against the virus.

In addition to getting the vaccine, you can take these additional precautions to reduce your risk of contracting the virus:

  • Refrain from taking illegal drugs.
  • Always use latex or polyurethane condoms during sex.
  • Make sure new, sterile needles are used during all piercings, tattoos and acupuncture sessions.
  • Avoid direct contact with blood and bodily fluids.
  • Know the HBV status of all your sexual partners.
  • Ask your doctor about possible vaccination before you travel to a place where hepatitis B is common.

A note from Cleveland Clinic

Hepatitis B is a liver disease that can cause serious damage to your health. One reason that is dangerous is that it can easily go undetected for years while damaging your liver. Talk with your healthcare provider about being tested for hepatitis B if you have any reason to believe that you were not vaccinated or if you have engaged in risky behavior. If you do test positive, follow the directions from your healthcare provider so that you can live a longer, healthier and happier life.

Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 07/09/2020.

References

How Is Hepatitis C Spread Will My Loved Ones Catch It From Me

Household transmission of hepatitis C is extremely rare. Here are some ways the virus is transmitted:

  • Injecting drugs, such as heroin, even if it’s only once. The needles and other drug “works” that are used to prepare or inject the drug may have had someone else’s blood that contained HCV on them.
  • Being a health care worker with frequent contact with blood on the job, especially from accidental needlesticks.
  • Having a mother who had hepatitis C when she gave birth to you.
  • Sharing items such as razors, toothbrushes, and other personal health items that might have had blood on them.
  • Getting a tattoo with unsanitary instruments, as they might have someone else’s blood on them.
  • Having unprotected sex with multiple partners. Although hepatitis C rarely is spread through sexual contact, it can happen.
  • The number one risk factor for infection and transmission is sharing needles for intravenous drug use. Most people who use IV drugs become infected with HCV within one year of sharing needles.

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    What Are The Signs & Symptoms Of Hbv Infection

    HBV can cause a wide range of symptoms, from a mild illness and general feeling of being unwell to more serious chronic liver disease that can lead to liver cancer.

    Someone with hepatitis B may have symptoms similar to those caused by other viral infections, like the flu. The person might:

    • be extra tired
    • feel like throwing up or actually throw up
    • not feel like eating
    • have a mild fever

    HBV also can cause darker than usual pee, jaundice , and belly pain.

    People exposed to hepatitis B may start to have symptoms from 1 to 6 months later. Symptoms can last for weeks to months.

    In some people, hepatitis B causes few or no symptoms. But even someone who doesn’t have any symptoms can still spread the disease to others.

    What Is Hepatitis B

    Liver pain: Symptoms and causes

    Hepatitis B is an infection of your liver. Itâs caused by a virus. There is a vaccine that protects against it. For some people, hepatitis B is mild and lasts a short time. These âacuteâ cases donât always need treatment. But it can become chronic. If that happens, it can cause scarring of the organ, liver failure, and cancer, and it even can be life-threatening.

    Itâs spread when people come in contact with the blood, open sores, or body fluids of someone who has the hepatitis B virus.

    It’s serious, but if you get the disease as an adult, it shouldnât last a long time. Your body fights it off within a few months, and youâre immune for the rest of your life. That means you can’t get it again. But if you get it at birth, itâ unlikely to go away.

    âHepatitisâ means inflammation of the liver. There are other types of hepatitis. Those caused by viruses also include hepatitis A and hepatitis C.

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    What Are The Tests For Hepatitis C

    There are two blood tests needed to diagnose hepatitis C:

    The antibody test–called HCV antibody, HCV Ab, or anti-HCV–is done first. If this test is positive, it means that you have been infected with hepatitis C at some point in the past. If your antibody test is negative, then you have never been infected with hepatitis C if you were infected within the past month or so, the test may not be accurate you may needed to be retested at a later date.

    However, a positive antibody test does not tell you if you still have hepatitis C. For that, you need to have a HCV RNA test, which determines whether the virus itself is in the bloodstream.

    If any RNA is present in the blood after 6 months from time of infection, then you have chronic hepatitis C.

    If no RNA is detected in the blood after 6 months, you no longer have hepatitis C.

    Further Support And Information

    The Hepatitis Foundation can offer support and information on hepatitis B.

    The Hepatitis Foundation of New ZealandFreephone: 0800 33 20 10Website: www.hepfoundation.org.nzFor information about hepatitis B vaccination, consult a doctor or contact the:Immunisation Advisory CentreWebsite: www.immune.org.nz

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    Causes Of Hepatitis B

    Hepatitis B is spread through contact with blood that contains the hepatitis B virus. If infected blood or body fluids enter another persons bloodstream, that person may become infected.

    The time from exposure to the hepatitis B virus to the appearance of the illness is 45 to 180 days.

    Risky activities that can cause infection include:

    • Sharing unsterile or unclean equipment for injecting drugs.
    • Piercing the skin with equipment that is not properly cleaned, disinfected and sterilised.
    • Sharing razor blades or toothbrushes.
    • Coming into contact with infected blood through open cuts or the mucous membranes of another person.
    • Having unprotected sex , especially if there is blood present.

    Mothers who have hepatitis B can pass the virus to their babies or children at the time of birth or after birth. If the newborn baby is quickly immunised with 2 vaccines, they can be protected from getting hepatitis B.

    All blood and blood products produced for medical purposes in Australia are carefully screened for hepatitis B and other blood-borne viruses. The risk of getting infected with hepatitis B from a blood transfusion is extremely low .

    How Can I Prevent Spreading Hepatitis B To Others

    Hepatitis B

    If you have hepatitis B, follow the steps above to avoid spreading the infection. Your sex partners should get a hepatitis B test and, if they arent infected, get the hepatitis B vaccine. You can protect others from getting infected by telling your doctor, dentist, and other health care professionals that you have hepatitis B. Dont donate blood or blood products, semen, organs, or tissue.

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    Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Test

    A hepatitis B surface antigen test shows if youre contagious. A positive result means you have hepatitis B and can spread the virus. A negative result means you dont currently have hepatitis B. This test doesnt distinguish between chronic and acute infection. This test is used together with other hepatitis B tests to determine the .

    Can I Get Reinfected With Hepatitis C

    If you become infected with hepatitis C infection and then clear the virus , yes, it is possible for you to become infected again.

    The chance of another infection with hepatitis C is much, much less than the chance of a first-time infection, but it is not impossible. It has happened in people who continue to use injection drugs, and some studies suggest that it happens even more often in people who are also HIV positive.

    In other words, having had hepatitis C once does not make you “immune” to getting hepatitis C again.

    The best way to avoid reinfection is to reduce risky behaviors that can result in exposure to the hepatitis C virus: Do not use injection drugs, do not share needles for any reason, avoid blood-to-blood exposures with others, and use condoms if you are sexually active with a new partner or with a partner who has used injection drugs.

    The research in this area is ongoing, and we will continue to learn more about this very important topic. But for now, preventing re-exposure to the hepatitis C virus is the only sure way of avoiding infection and reinfection with hepatitis C.

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    Is Hepatitis B Contagious

    Hepatitis B is highly contagious. It spreads through contact with infected blood and certain other bodily fluids. Although the virus can be found in saliva, its not spread through sharing utensils or kissing. It also doesnt spread through sneezing, coughing, or breastfeeding. Symptoms of hepatitis B may not appear for 3 months after exposure and can last for 212 weeks. However, you are still contagious, even

    To screen for hepatitis B, your doctor will perform a series of blood tests.

    Who Can Be Treated For Hepatitis C

    Spotlight: What is Help

    Treatment decisions should be made by both you and your provider. Current treatments for hepatitis C are very successful and can cure most people of the virus.

  • Treatment regimens exist for all genotypes.
  • Treatment regimens exist for HCV-HIV coinfection.
  • Treatment regimens exist for all stages of disease .
  • Treatment regimens exist for patients who have taken treatment in the past but were not successful.
  • Recommended Reading: Difference Between Hepatitis A And B

    How Is Hepatitis B Diagnosed

    There are three main ways to diagnose HBV infection. They include:

    • Blood tests: Tests of the blood serum shows how your bodys immune system is responding to the virus. A blood test can also tell you if you are immune to HBV.
    • Abdominal ultrasound: An ultrasound uses sound waves to show the size and shape of your liver and how well the blood flows through it.
    • Liver biopsy: A small sample of your liver tissue is removed though a tiny incision and sent to a lab for analysis.

    The blood test that is used to diagnose hepatitis B is not a test that you get routinely during a medical visit. Often, people whove become infected first learn they have hepatitis B when they go to donate blood. Blood donations are routinely scanned for the infection.

    The virus can be detected within 30 to 60 days of infection. About 70% of adults with hepatitis B develop symptoms, which tend to appear an average of 90 days after initial exposure to the virus.

    In The Hepatitis B Camp

    “In the Hepatitis B Camp” is a popular website for hepatitis B carriers’ human rights in China. Its online forum is the world’s biggest such forum with over 300,000 members. The website was first shut down by the Chinese government in November 2007. Lu Jun, the head of the rights group, managed to reopen the website by moving it to an overseas server, but the authorities in May 2008 began blocking access to the website within China, only 10 days after government officials participated in an event for World Hepatitis Day at the Great Wall of China. An official had told the head of the rights group, Lu Jun, at the time that the closure was due to the Beijing Olympic Games.

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