Wednesday, September 21, 2022

How Long Are Hepatitis B Shots Good For

Us Infant Hepatitis B Vaccine Schedules

Hepatitis B Vaccine for Babies – Importance and Recommended Schedule
*Please note that the first dose should be given as soon as possible. Additional doses require minimum time intervals between doses in order for the vaccine to be effective.
3-Dose Vaccine Series for Infants

Since 1991, ALL medically stable infants with a birth weight of at least 2,000 g in the U.S. are recommended to receive the first dose of hepatitis B vaccine within 24 hours of birth. The additional 2 doses are given at 1 month and 6 months of age.

4-Dose Vaccine Combination Series for Infants

Combination vaccines, such as the pentavalent and hexavalent vaccines, include protection against 5 or 6 diseases, including hepatitis B. The first shot is usually given at 6 weeks of age, but in order to protect infants from hepatitis B beginning at birth, a monovalent or single dose of the hepatitis B vaccine is also recommended within 24 hours of birth. The hepatitis B vaccine series can then be completed with the pentavalent or hexavalent vaccine with the recommended schedule.

Do The Benefits Of The Hepatitis B Vaccine Outweigh Its Risks

Every year in the United States about 2,000 people die following an overwhelming hepatitis B virus infection. In addition, every year about 22,000 people are infected with hepatitis B. Some of them will remain chronically infected, putting them at high risk of the long-term consequences of hepatitis B virus infection: cirrhosis and liver cancer. In fact, with the exception of influenza and COVID-19 viruses, hepatitis B virus causes more severe disease and death in the United States than any other vaccine-preventable disease. On the other hand, the hepatitis B vaccine is an extremely rare cause of a severe allergic reaction called anaphylaxis. To date, no one has died from this reaction, but it is theoretically possible that this could occur.

Because hepatitis B virus is a common cause of severe disease and death in the United States, and because the hepatitis B vaccine does not cause permanent damage or death, the benefits of the hepatitis B vaccine clearly outweigh its risks.

Who Should Get Hepatitis B Vaccine

All infants should get their first dose of hepatitis B vaccine within 24 hours of birth and will usually complete the series at 6 months of age.

All unvaccinated children and adolescents younger than 19 years of age should also get vaccinated.

All adults 19 through 59 years of age are recommended to get vaccinated.

Adults 60 years and older with risk factors should get vaccinated. Risk factors include:

  • People whose sex partners have hepatitis B
  • People who live with someone with hepatitis B
  • Sexually active people who are not in a long-term relationship
  • People getting evaluated or treated for a sexually transmitted infection
  • Men who have sex with men
  • People who share needles, syringes, or other drug-injection equipment
  • Health care and public safety workers at risk for exposure to blood or body fluids
  • People with chronic liver disease, who are on dialysis, have HIV infection, or hepatitis C infection
  • People with diabetes should ask their health care provider
  • Developmentally disabled persons in long-term care facilities
  • People in prison or jail
  • Travelers to areas with high rates of hepatitis B
  • Anyone who wants to be protected from hepatitis B
  • Recommended Reading: Hepatitis A And B Vaccine Cost

    Persons New To Canada

    Health care providers who see persons newly arrived in Canada should review the immunization status and update immunization for these individuals, as necessary. In many countries outside of Canada, HB vaccine is in limited use.

    All persons from a country that is endemic for HB should be assessed and vaccinated against HB if not immune and not infected. Individuals born in developing countries are more likely to be carriers of HB, necessitating vaccination of their sexual and household contacts based on review of their serologic test results. HB vaccine is recommended for all household contacts whose families have immigrated to Canada from areas in which there is a high prevalence of HB and who may be exposed to HB carriers through their extended families or when visiting their country of origin.

    Children adopted from countries in which there is a high prevalence of HB infection should be screened for HBsAg and, if positive, household or close contacts in the adopting family should be immunized before adoption or as soon as possible thereafter. Adults going to pick-up children from these countries should be vaccinated before departure. Refer to Immunization of Persons New to Canada in Part 3 for additional information.

    Who Should Get The Hepatitis A Vaccine

    Hepatitis B

    The CDC recommends that all children between ages 12 months and 23 months get this vaccine as well as for any infant aged 6 to 11 months who is traveling internationally.

    The following people are also at risk for the disease and should be vaccinated:

    • Children and teens through age 18 who live in states or communities that have made this vaccination routine because of a high rate of disease
    • Men who have sex with men
    • Anyone who uses illegal drugs
    • People with chronic liver disease
    • Anyone treated with blood clotting drugs, such as people with hemophilia
    • People who work with HAV-infected primates or in HAV research laboratories.
    • Travelers to countries where hepatitis A is common. A good source to check is the CDCâs travelersâ health website, which you can search by the country youâre going to.
    • People adopting or close to a child adopted from a country where hepatitis A is common

    You should not get the vaccine if you’re allergic to any ingredients in it or if you had a severe allergic reaction to an earlier dose of it. Tell your doctor or pharmacist about any allergies you have.

    If you’re pregnant, let your doctor know. The safety of this vaccine for pregnant women is unknown, although the risk is considered to be very low.

    Recommended Reading: What Is The Best Treatment For Hepatitis C

    Number Of Doses Required

    Depending on the persons age, 2 or 3 doses of the vaccine are required to ensure the best possible protection.

    For people under age 20, 1 dose of hepatitis A and hepatitis B vaccine, followed by 1 dose of hepatitis B vaccine, are enough to ensure effective protection.

    People aged 20 or older will need 3 doses of the combined hepatitis A and hepatitis B vaccine.

    What Is Hepatitis B Virus

    Hepatitis B virus attacks the liver. Hepatitis B virus infections are known as the “silent epidemic” because many infected people don’t experience symptoms until decades later when they develop hepatitis , cirrhosis , or cancer of the liver . Every year in the United States about 22,000 new hepatitis B infections occur and about 2,000 people die from their infections.

    Recommended Reading: What Are The Signs Of Hepatitis B

    Hepatitis A And B Vaccine

    On September 1, 2020, changes were made to the Québec Immunization Program. These changes are based on a recommendation made by the Comité sur limmunisation du Québec and concern vaccines administered at school. To find out more, go to the Changes made to the school-based vaccination program section.

    What Do The Results Mean

    Addressing Adult Patientsâ Hepatitis B Vaccine Concerns with Dr. Sandra Leal

    A hepatitis B blood panel consists of three tests that can be done with just one blood sample:

    • Hepatitis B surface antigen . A positive test indicates that youre infected with hepatitis B and that you can spread it to other people. Further tests are needed to see if you have an acute or chronic infection.
    • Hepatitis B core antibody . A positive result can indicate a past or current hepatitis B infection, but doesnt mean youre immune. A positive result needs to be interpreted by a doctor by examining the results of the other two tests.
    • Hepatitis B surface antibody . A positive test indicates that youre protected from hepatitis B either through previous infection or vaccination .

    The combination of these tests can indicate your hepatitis B status and whether you need to be vaccinated. Your test will give a negative or positive result for each category depending on whether your results are above or below the cutoff value.

    Most peoples test results fall into the following categories. But its possible to have a result that doesnt fall into one of these groups. If youre reading your results yourself, be careful not to confuse HBsAb with HBcAb.

    HBsAG

    is associated with hepatitis B immunity after vaccination. But research has found that anti-HBs decline over time.

    A found that more than 95 percent of people had anti-HBs levels greater than 10IU/L two years after vaccination. But this rate decreased to 70 percent after eight years.

    Also Check: What Organ Does Hepatitis Affect

    How Do You Catch Hepatitis B Virus

    Blood from a person infected with hepatitis B virus is heavily contaminated with the virus. As a result, contact with blood is the most likely way to catch hepatitis B. Even casual contact with the blood of someone who is infected can cause infection.

    Healthcare workers are at high risk of catching the disease, as are intravenous drug users and newborns of mothers infected with the virus. Sexual contact can also expose people to infection. The virus is also present in low levels in saliva.

    What Hepatitis B Immunisation Involves

    Full protection involves having 3 injections of the hepatitis B vaccine at the recommended intervals.

    Babies born to mothers with hepatitis B infection will be given 6 doses of hepatitis B-containing vaccine to ensure long-lasting protection.

    If you’re a healthcare worker or you have kidney failure, you’ll have a follow-up appointment to see if you have responded to the vaccine.

    If you have been vaccinated by your employer’s occupational health service, you can request a blood test to see if you have responded to the vaccine.

    Don’t Miss: Hepatitis B Core Antibody Positive Treatment

    Common And Local Adverse Events

    HB vaccine

    HB vaccine is well tolerated. Reactions are generally mild and transient, and include: irritability, headache, fatigue and injection site reactions in 10% or more of recipients.

    HAHB vaccine

    There is no increase in adverse events when HAHB vaccine is compared with HA vaccine given alone or concomitantly with HB vaccine at a different injection site. When the adult formulation of HAHB vaccine is given to children in the 2 dose schedule, there is no increase in adverse events compared with those occurring after administration of the pediatric formulation of HAHB vaccine.

    DTaP-HB-IPV-Hib vaccine

    Reactions are usually mild and transient, and include fever, irritability, restlessness and injection site reactions .

    HBIg

    Headache, diarrhea, fever, urticaria, angioedema and injection site reactions may occur.

    Us Children And Adult Hepatitis B Vaccine Schedules

    What is the hepatitis B vaccine, how long does it last, what are the ...
    *Please note that the first dose should be given as soon as possible. Additional doses require minimum time intervals between doses in order for the vaccine to be effective.

    3-Dose Vaccine Series for Children and Adults

    The hepatitis B vaccine is an injection that is generally given in the arm as a three-dose series on a 0, 1, and 6-month schedule. Alternative schedules may be considered, noting that a third dose at 6 months, meeting minimum intervals between doses, is needed for maximum, long-term protection. Completing the hepatitis B vaccine series, preferably beginning at birth, will ensure protection against hepatitis B, hepatitis delta and lower the lifetime risk of liver cancer. Greater than 90% of babies and up to 50% of young children who are not vaccinated and are infected with hepatitis B will have lifelong infection, which makes the birth dose essential to their protection.

    There are four, 3-dose vaccine brands approved in the U.S.

    • PreHevbrio PreHevbrio is only approved for adults age 18 and over.

    2-Dose Vaccine Series

    Read Also: Hepatitis C Vaccine Schedule For Adults

    Does The Hepatitis B Vaccine Have Side Effects

    Some children will develop pain or soreness in the local area of the shot, and low-grade fever.

    There is one extremely rare, but serious, side effect. About 1 out of every 600,000 doses of the hepatitis B vaccine will cause a severe allergic reaction, called anaphylaxis, with symptoms including swelling of the mouth, difficulty breathing, low blood pressure or shock. Anaphylaxis usually occurs within 15 minutes of receiving the vaccine. Although anaphylaxis can be treated, it is quite frightening. People should remain at the doctors office for about 15 minutes after getting the vaccine.

    Although the hepatitis B vaccine is made in yeast cells, no one has ever been shown to be allergic to the yeast proteins contained in the hepatitis B vaccine .

    Who Should Not Get The Hepatitis B Vaccine

    Hepatitis B is a safe vaccine that does not contain a live virus.

    However, there are some circumstances in which doctors advise against getting the HBV vaccine.

    You should not receive the hepatitis B vaccine if:

    • youve had a serious allergic reaction to a previous dose of the hepatitis B vaccine
    • you have a history of hypersensitivity to yeast or any other HBV vaccine components

    You May Like: Hepatitis B Virus Dna Quantitative

    Exactly How Long Does Hep Vaccine Last

    Years ago, the standard 3-round Hepatitis B vaccine provided protection for up to seven years. However, todays vaccines provide you with more than 20 years of protection.

    This means that booster doses are largely unneeded these days. However, it is recommended for certain groups to take subsequent booster doses. At-risk groups include hemodialysis patients and other individuals with seriously compromised immune systems, such as people infected with HIV, chemotherapy patients, and recipients of hematopoietic stem-cell transplants.

    Who Should Receive Hepatitis B Vaccination

    Ending hepatitis B with crucial birth dose vaccine
    • All newborns before hospital discharge. Infants born to hepatitis B-positive women need hepatitis B vaccine and HBIG within 12 hours of birth.
    • All children and adolescents not previously vaccinated.
    • Children born in the U.S. to individuals born in a country with high hepatitis B endemicity.
    • All individuals at risk of hepatitis B infection:
    • Sex partners of hepatitis B-positive persons
    • Sexually active persons who are not in a long-term, mutually monogamous relationship
    • Persons seeking evaluation or treatment for a sexually-transmitted disease
    • Men who have sex with men
    • Persons who inject drugs
    • Household contacts of hepatitis B-positive persons
    • Persons born in countries where hepatitis B infection is endemic should be tested and vaccinated if susceptible
    • International travelers to regions with high or intermediate rates of endemic hepatitis B infection
    • Health care and public safety workers that may be exposed to blood or blood-contaminated body fluids
    • Residents and staff of facilities for developmentally disabled persons, corrections facilities, and other facilities that serve adults at risk for hepatitis B infection
    • Persons with end-stage renal disease, including pre-dialysis, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and home dialysis patients
    • Persons with chronic liver disease
    • Persons to age 60 years with diabetes
    • Persons with HIV infection
    • All other persons seeking protection from hepatitis B infection.

    You May Like: Hepatitis C Non Reactive Test Result

    How And When Do Doctors Give Vaccines

    For the hepatitis A vaccine:

    You should get two doses, given as shots, 6 months apart for complete protection. The virus in the vaccine is killed .

    Children should get the first dose between 12 and 23 months of age. Children older than age 2 can get the first dose at their next doctorâs visit.

    If you need the vaccine because of upcoming travel, get it at least 1 month before you go.

    For the hepatitis B vaccine:

    For long-lasting immunity, you need three to four doses, depending on which type of vaccine is used. You get them as shots.

    Children should get their first dose at birth and complete the series by age 6 months. Usually, the baby would get a second dose at 1 month old and the third dose at 6 months.

    Babies born to women who have hepatitis B need a shot of hep B antibodies, as well as their first hep B vaccine shot, when theyâre born. They will also need follow-up blood tests to make sure theyâre OK.

    Catch-up vaccinations are recommended for children and teens who were never vaccinated or who did not get all three shots.

    If you’re an adult who wants to be vaccinated, you should talk about it with your doctor or pharmacist. If you are considering both vaccines, ask your doctor about vaccines that combine hep A and B.

    Show Sources

    Hepatitis B Vaccine Side Effects

    The hepatitis B vaccine is considered a very safe and effective vaccine. Its made with an inactivated virus, so most types of the vaccine are even safe for pregnant people.

    The hepatitis B vaccine may cause some mild side effects. The most common symptom is redness, swelling, or soreness where the injection was given. Some people also experience headache or fever. These effects usually last a day or two .

    Rarely, some people have a serious and potentially life threatening allergic reaction to the vaccine. Call 911 or get to a hospital immediately if you experience any of the following symptoms after vaccination:

    • hives

    Recommended Reading: Is Hepatitis Ca Sexually Transmitted Disease

    Hepatitis B Vaccine: Canadian Immunization Guide

    For health professionals

    Last partial content update : May 2022

    The footnotes in and the accompanying text description for the figure have been revised to align with the corresponding figure in Protocole d’immunisation du Québec, 5e édition from which it was adapted.

    Last complete chapter revision :

    For Adults And Children

    Why do newborns need the hepatitis B vaccine?

    This vaccine schedule involves three doses within 2 months, followed by a booster dose at 1 year.

    The initial accelerated doses provide immediate protection from HBV, and the booster dose helps provide long-term protection.

    Below is the accelerated vaccination schedule approved for both adults and children:

    Vaccine series
    2 months after the first dose 1 year after the first dose

    Also Check: Can I Get Disability For Hepatitis C

    Will My Immunization Be Recorded

    Your immunization records are registered in a computerized network known as the Immunization Records and Yellow Cards. While this one is specific to Ontario, each province has their own.

    They can use information obtained in these databases to:

    • Maintain immunization data
    • Inform you whether or when you or your family members need an immunization
    • Track how well vaccinations perform to prevent vaccine-preventable infections

    You can also share your immunization history with health care providers for the provision of social health services to aid with assessment and treatment and monitor the spread of infectious illnesses.

    Popular Articles
    Related news