Saturday, February 4, 2023

How Is Hepatitis Spread From One Person To Another

When Should You Contact Doctor If You Think You Have Hepatitis

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Fortunately, for some types of hepatitis , there are preventative treatments. Consequently, if a person suspects that they may have been recently exposed to any type of infectious hepatitis, they should contact their health-care professional quickly to prevent liver damage.

If a person has the following symptoms for days, they should seek medical care urgently.

How Can You Prevent This Infection

Follow the tips below. If you make them your habits, you can prevent hepatitis Aas well as other diseases:

  • Always wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water before touching or eating food, after using the toilet, and after changing a diaper. When soap and water are not available, use alcohol-based disposable hand wipes or gel sanitizers.
  • Dont eat raw or undercooked shellfish.
  • Always wash fruits and vegetables before eating them.

For long-term protection, hepatitis A vaccine is best. Vaccine is recommended for certain groups, including:

  • All children at age 1 year
  • Travelers to countries where hepatitis A is common
  • Family and caregivers of recent adoptees from countries where hepatitis A is common
  • Men who have sex with men
  • Users of recreational drugs, whether injected or not
  • Persons who have chronic or long term liver disease, including hepatitis C and hepatitis B
  • Persons with bleeding and clotting factor disorders

Immune globulin is a shot that provides short-term protection. It is used for persons who have not received hepatitis A vaccine and are exposed to hepatitis A, or persons who are allergic to the vaccine or chose not to get it, and who will be traveling to an area where hepatitis A is common.

Who Should Be Tested For Hepatitis

Testing is important for anyone with the risk factors we’ve mentioned, particularly injected drug users and people who have had multiple sex partners. Health advocates are also urging people of Asian heritage to get tested. Stanford University’s Asian Liver Center estimates that 1 in 10 Asians living in the U.S. has chronic hepatitis B. Many of them have probably had the virus since birth.

Also, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends that health care providers offer a one-time hepatitis C screening for anyone born between 1945 and 1965.

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What Is Hepatitis A

Hepatitis A accounts for 20 percent to 25 percent of hepatitis cases in developed countries. Hepatitis A is usually transmitted through the fecal-oral route, meaning a person somehow ingests contaminated feces from an infected person. If an infected person did not wash his or her hands properly after using the bathroom, the disease may spread from the persons hands. The incubation period is two to six weeks, during which the infected individual is contagious.

Another cause of hepatitis A is eating shellfish harvested from contaminated water. Developing countries experience hepatitis A epidemics caused by drinking water contaminated with raw sewage.

The prognosis for hepatitis A patients is excellent with self-limiting course, and recovery is complete. About 85 percent of people with hepatitis A recover within three months, and almost all recover within six months. The disease does not become chronic, and there are no long-term health implications.

Sharing Toothbrushes Scissors And Razors

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Theres a potential risk that hepatitis C may be passed on through sharing items such as toothbrushes, razors and scissors, as they can become contaminated with infected blood.

Equipment used by hairdressers, such as scissors and clippers, can pose a risk if it has been contaminated with infected blood and not sterilised or cleaned between customers. However, most salons operate to high standards, so this risk is low.

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How Autoimmune Disease Is Diagnosed

The criteria for the diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis have been established and revised by the International Autoimmune Hepatitis Group. The diagnosis of autoimmune disease is based on the presence of high level of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, levels of IgG. A test is also conducted for checking positivity for circulating autoantibodies is also done for a definitive diagnosis. There have also been cases of cholestasis in some patients. In such cases, cholestatic forms of viral hepatitis, extra-hepatic obstruction, primary biliary cirrhosis, drug-induced disease, overlap syndromes, and primary sclerosing cholangitis must be taken into consideration.

Contagious And Incubation Periods

The incubation periodthe time it takes for symptoms to appear after the hepatitis C virus has entered your bodyis from 2 weeks to 6 months. But not all people have symptoms when they are first infected.

You can spread the virus to someone else at any time after you are infected, even if you dont have symptoms.

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Transmission Of Hepatitis B

The hepatitis B virus is transmitted through blood and sexual fluids. This can most commonly occur in the following ways:

Direct contact with infected blood

Unprotected sex

Use of illegal or street drugs

Needles and other medical/dental equipments or procedures that are contaminated or not sterile

From an infected woman to her newborn during pregnancy and childbirth

Body piercing, tattooing, acupuncture and even nail salons are other potential routes of infection unless sterile needles and equipment are used. In addition, sharing sharp instruments such as razors, toothbrushes, nail clippers, earrings and body jewelry can be a source of infection.

Hepatitis B is NOT transmitted casually. It cannot be spread through toilet seats, doorknobs, sneezing, coughing, hugging or eating meals with someone who is infected with hepatitis B.

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Parenteral Routes: Transmission Of Hepatitis B Hepatitis D And Hepatitis C

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Hepatitis B, C, and D viruses are all transmitted by what is known as the parenteral route. Parenteral simply means that these viruses can be introduced by all routes except through the intestinal tract, which leaves the door wide open in terms of possible exposure. Let’s look at the possible transmission routes for each of these types of hepatitis virus more closely.

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Hepatitis A And E Symptoms

Hepatitis A and hepatitis E present with similar symptoms. The diseases may develop without any signs or symptoms, or symptoms may be nonspecific. If you experience any of the symptoms below for more than two weeks, make an appointment with a gastroenterologist.

There are three phases of hepatitis A and E, and symptoms may differ depending on the stage. Early in the disease, called the prodromal phase, symptoms may include:

What If You Test Positive

If a test says you have viral hepatitis, you can take steps to protect the ones you love. For hepatitis A, wash hands frequently. For hepatitis B and C, avoid sharing nail clippers, razors, or toothbrushes. Hepatitis B, and sometimes hepatitis C, can be passed through sexual contact. Make sure everyone in your household gets the hepatitis B vaccine. An important step is to see a specialist to discuss treatment options.

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What Is Hepatitis A And How Is It Transmitted

Hepatitis A, formerly known as infectious hepatitis, is caused by thehepatitis A virus. The virus enters through the mouth, multiplies in the bodyand is passed in the stool. It can be carried on the hands of an infectedperson who does not wash his or her hands thoroughly after using the toilet.The infection can be spread by direct contact with the hepatitis A virus orwhen another person consumes food or drink handled by an infected person whodoes not practice good hygiene, such as handwashing. In some cases, it can bespread to persons who ingest sewage-contaminated water.

Hiv And Hbv Coinfection

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About 2% of people with HIV in the United States are coinfected with HBV both infections have similar routes of transmission. People with HIV are at greater risk for complications and death from HBV infection. All people with HIV are recommended to be tested for HBV, and if susceptible, are further recommended to receive the hepatitis B vaccination or, if chronically infected, evaluated for treatment to prevent liver disease and liver cancer. For more information about HIV and HBV coinfection, visit HIV.govâs pages about hepatitis B and HIV coinfection.

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Hepatitis C Is The Most Common Type Of Chronic Viral Hepatitis In The United States

Viral hepatitis is a group of infectious diseases that causes inflammation of the liver. There are five types of viral hepatitis, but the most common in the United States are hepatitis A, B and C.

Hepatitis A

If you travel internationally, you should be aware of your risks for hepatitis A. New cases most commonly result from American travelers who get infected while traveling to parts of the world where hepatitis A is common. Hepatitis A is spread by consuming food or water contaminated with fecal matter from an infected person, or by eating raw shellfish from water contaminated by sewage. Hepatitis A is an acute process. It never is a chronic disease and does not cause cirrhosis.

Prevention: The hepatitis A vaccine is recommended for children people with certain risk factors and international travelers. It requires two rounds of shots to be effective. Washing your hands and avoiding unsanitary drinking water or food washed with unsanitary water is also important. If you become infected, your body is usually able to clear the infection itself within a few weeks.

Hepatitis B

Prevention: Doctors recommend that all children get the hepatitis B vaccine. If you become infected, hepatitis B can range from a mild illness to a serious condition requiring hospitalization, and in some cases, it can become a chronic, lifelong problem.

Hepatitis C

Can You Spread Autoimmune Hepatitis

Autoimmune hepatitis is a disorder of unidentified etiology, causing acute and chronic liver disease. The prevalence rate of this disorder is 16.9 per 100,000 and annual occurrence of 1.93 per 100,000. It affects all ages and races, particularly black patients may have worse outcomes. It is characterized by a female preponderance and women are affected three times more commonly than men.

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How Can You Prevent Hepatitis A

There is a vaccine, made from an inactivateddeadvirus to prevent hepatitis A. If you are not sure you have had the vaccine, you can ask your doctor to test you to see if you have been vaccinated.

You can also practice good hand washing hygiene. Make sure you use soap and warm water to wash your hands for at least 15 to 30 seconds after you use the toilet, change diapers, and before and after touching food.

If you are traveling in another country, especially a developing country, drink only bottled water and use only bottled water to brush your teeth, wash your produce, and freeze for ice cubes.

Keep Personal Items Personal

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Any tools or implements that may have a bit of blood on them from infected people are potential sources of hepatitis B or C transmission. Toothbrushes, nail clippers, razors, needles, and washcloths may all contain trace amounts of blood that can transmit infection. Keep personal items such as these to yourself and never use personal items that belong to others.

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How Can A Person Contract Hepatitis From Contaminated Food

The Washington State Department of Health states that a person can come into contact with hepatitis A if they eat food or drink water that is contaminated with the feces of a person who has the virus.

The virus can, therefore, spread from a person who does not wash their hands after using the bathroom and then touches food.

The food itself can also be contaminated with hepatitis A. For example, people can contract hepatitis A if they eat oysters that farmers have harvested from sewage-contaminated water.

of hepatitis A transmission by:

  • washing their hands for 20 seconds using warm soap and water before handling raw foods
  • washing their hands after changing diapers
  • washing their hands after using the bathroom

People should also sanitize their kitchen using the following steps:

  • Wash cutting boards, countertops, utensils, and the inside of the fridge walls and shelves.
  • Sanitize the above using a solution consisting of 1 tablespoon of chlorine bleach to 1 gallon of hot water.
  • Dry these areas using a clean cloth or paper towel.
  • Who Should Get The Hepatitis A Vaccine

    The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends that all children in the U.S. get vaccinated against hepatitis A at age 12 months. However, if an infant aged 6-11 months will be traveling to a country with a significant number of people with hepatitis A, the child should get one dose before leaving the U.S. The child should then get 2 doses separated by 6 to 18 months when the child is between 12 months and 23 months.

    You should also get the hepatitis A vaccine if you fall into one of the following groups:

    • Men who have sexual contact with other men.
    • Users of any type of illegal drugs.
    • People with blood clot disorders, such as hemophilia.
    • People who have chronic liver disease.
    • Homeless people.
    • People who will be closely involved with a person being adopted from a country with high rates of hepatitis A infections.

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    Hepatitis C: Who Is At Risk

    People who have injected illegal drugs at any time, even one time, many years ago, could be walking around with chronic hepatitis C. Because there are often no symptoms, many former drug users may not realize they have the infection. People who received a blood transfusion before 1992 also have a higher risk. Before that year, donated blood was not screened for the hepatitis C virus.

    How Is Hepatitis B Transmitted

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    Hepatitis B is spread in several distinct ways: sexual contact sharing needles, syringes, or other drug-injection equipment or from mother-to-child at birth.

    In the United States, in 2018, injection drug use was the most common risk factor reported among people with an acute HBV infection, followed by having multiple sex partners. Less commonly reported risk factors included accidental needle sticks, surgery, transfusions, and household contact with a person with HBV infection. In the United States, healthcare-related transmission of HBV is rare.

    Mother-to-child transmission of HBV is especially concerning, because it is preventable. An estimated 25,000 infants are born to mothers diagnosed with HBV each year in the United States, and approximately 1,000 mothers transmit HBV to their infants. Without appropriate medical care and vaccinations, 90% of HBV-infected newborns will develop chronic infection, remaining infected throughout their lives. Up to 25% of people infected at birth will die prematurely of HBV-related causes. For this reason, the standard of care for pregnant women includes an HBV test during each pregnancy so that the appropriate steps can be taken to prevent HBV-positive mothers from transmitting the disease to her infant.

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    Need More Proof Viruses Are Fragile

    The hepatitis viruses are very picky about what they infect and where they can survive. They really like livers, and mosquitoes donât have livers! This means that the mosquitoes arenât really a good home and the viruses wouldnât survive long enough to be spread, even if they could be.

    Also, people who study mosquitoes have noticed they usually donât bite two people consecutively. After they bite, they will fly away to let their food digest and then after a period of time, they will feed again. Because the hepatitis viruses donât last long in a harsh environment, they wouldnât survive long enough to infect.

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    Can Bleach Or Cleaner Kill Hepatitis A

    Disinfectant that contains bleach can kill the hepatitis A virus on hard non-porous surfaces like toilet seats. However, freezing does not kill HAV.

    If you cook food that is contaminated for one minute at cooking temperatures higher than 185ºF , it will kill HAV. However, food can be contaminated after cooking, so it is very important to wash your hands well with soap and water.

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    Hepatitis A: How Does It Spread

    It usually spreads through food or water. Food can be tainted when it’s touched by a person with hepatitis who did not wash their hands after using the bathroom. This transfers tiny amounts of infected stool to the food. Raw shellfish, fruits, vegetables, and undercooked foods are common culprits in hepatitis A outbreaks. The virus can also spread in daycare centers if employees aren’t careful about washing hands after changing diapers.

    Where Can You Get More Information

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    • Your doctor, nurse or health care clinic
    • Your local board of health
    • The Massachusetts Department of Public Health , Division of Epidemiology and Immunization at 983-6800

    Chinese, Haitian Creole, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, and Vietnamese translations of this fact sheet are available under additional resources.

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    How Is Hepatitis A Virus Spread

    Hepatitis A virus is usually spread from person to person by putting something in the mouth that has been contaminated with the stool of a person with hepatitis A. Transmission typically occurs when someone with hepatitis A infection goes to the bathroom and does not wash their hands well afterwards so that tiny particles of stool containing the virus contaminate objects, food, or drinks and then can be spread to others. For this reason, the virus can spread in areas where there are poor sanitary conditions or where good personal hygiene is not observed.

    Most infections in the United States result from contact with a household member or sex partner who has hepatitis A. Hepatitis A virus can also be spread by consuming food or drink that has been handled by an infected person.

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