What Are The Risk Factors
Some people are at an increased risk for contracting HAV, including:
- people traveling to areas of the world where hepatitis A is common
- men who have sex with men
- people who use injectable or noninjectable drugs
- caregivers for those who have hepatitis A
- people who are experiencing homelessness
- people living with a child whos been adopted from an area where hepatitis A is common
Acute Vs Chronic Infection
Doctors distinguish between chronic and acute infection with hepatitis viruses. Acute infection is a short-term condition, lasting under six months. Chronic infection is a long-term condition, lasting more than six months.
Hepatitis B infection can be either acute or chronic. Most people who get acute hepatitis B dont end up progressing to chronic hepatitis B. By contrast, acute hepatitis C tends to develop into chronic hepatitis C. Approximately 7585 percent of adults newly infected with hepatitis C develop a chronic infection, according to the CDC . Others clear the infection.
When you get acute hepatitis C you may or may not have symptoms. Most cases of acute hepatitis C are asymptomatic, meaning people dont notice the symptoms. Symptoms are only noticeable in 15 percent of cases of acute hepatitis C.
What Is Hepatitis E
Hepatitis E, also called enteric hepatitis , is similar to hepatitis A, and more prevalent in Asia and Africa. It is also transmitted through the fecal-oral route. It is generally not fatal, though it is more serious in women during pregnancy and can cause fetal complications. Most patients with hepatitis E recover completely.
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Sample Collection And Laboratory Analysis
Venous blood samples were collected from every participant. Samples were centrifuged at 10,000rpm for 10min, and the sera were removed. During the measurements, laboratory personnel were blinded.
The serological markers were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using Architect kits on an Architect plus i2000 SR .
Total anti-HAV S/CO values 1.0, HBsAg S/CO values 1.0, anti-HBs concentrations 10 mIU/mL, total anti-HBc S/CO values 1.0, anti-HCV S/CO values1.0 were considered positive, and samples below these thresholds were considered negative according to the manufacturers instructions.
Why The Liver Matters
Your liver is an incredibly important organ that performs critical functions that affect your metabolism. It produces a substance known as bile, which aids in digestion.
Its also responsible for:
- Filtering toxins from your body
- Breaking down carbohydrates, fats, and proteins
- Activating enzymes essential to your bodys functions
- Excreting bilirubin, cholesterol, hormones, and drugs
When your liver is inflamed or starts to fail, it cant effectively do these or other essential jobs. As a result, you may experience fatigue, nausea, loss of appetite, diarrhea, and bloody vomit or stools. Liver failure is a medical emergency that requires immediate care.
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What’s The Difference Between Hepatitis A B And C
Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver and is often caused by a virus, which comes in different strains. The most common strains of hepatitis are Hepatitis A, B, and C.
Hepatitis A,B, and C, like all viruses, are contagious, but they differ mainly by the way they are spread, says Stella Badalova, PharmD, Director of Healthcare Relations and Clinical Development at Medly Pharmacy. Hepatitis B and C virus infections can become lifelong infections while Hepatitis A does not. There are vaccines to prevent hepatitis A and B only.
The World Health Organization estimates that in 2015, 257 million people globally suffered from Hepatitis B, while 71 million people worldwide suffered from Hepatitis C. Both of these types of hepatitis may cause lifelong infection according to WHO, in 2015 1.34 million people died from liver cancer, cirrhosis, and other conditions caused by chronic viral hepatitis.
Viral hepatitis symptoms are similar no matter which type of hepatitis you have and include the following:
Jaundice FeverLoss of appetiteFatigueDark urineJoint painAbdominal painDiarrheaNauseaVomiting
For all types of viral hepatitis, symptoms are less common in children than in adults, and people of any age with a Hepatitis C viral infection are less likely to experience symptoms.Hepatitis A
Safe and effective vaccines have been available in the US since 1995 to help prevent HAV transmission.
Three Types Of Hepatitis And What To Do About Them
Contact our practice at 410-224-4887 if you suspect you or a loved one has any form of hepatitis.
Hepatitis describes inflammation of your liver, the most common types being caused by one of several viruses. Hepatitis symptoms can make you sick for the short term or cause long-term, chronic liver problems.
When you have a form of hepatitis, it affects your livers ability to function. If your body cant clear the virus from your system, you may face long-term liver damage, liver failure, or liver cancer.
At Digestive Disorders Associates in Annapolis, Maryland, the expert team of board-certified gastroenterologists can help you recover from an acute form of hepatitis or manage your long-term infection.
Heres more about the most common forms of viral hepatitis and what you can do to heal.
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What Is The Difference Between Hepatitis A And Hepatitis B
You’ve undoubtedly heard hepatitis A and B mentioned many times before. Whether it was by watching the news, reading a headline, or overhearing a coworker say they had it in the past, it’s an unavoidable topic. But you may not really know what hepatitis A and B are, how dangerous they can be, who’s most at risk, or how you can protect yourself. Let’s look at the specifics so you have the facts to help keep yourself healthy year-round.
Difference Between Bosch Icon A And B / ‘tropical Rainforest Animal And Plant Chart Poster’ Poster / Currently There Are An Estimated 6 Million People Living With Hepatitis In The United States And More Than 50000 People Are Diagnosed With This Disease Every Year
Persons using assistive technology might not be able to fully access information in this file. Currently, there are an estimated 6 million people living with hepatitis in the united states, and more than 50,000 people are diagnosed with this disease every year. Most americans are aware that medicare provides healthcare for citizens once they turn 65 as well as younger people with certain disabilities and end stage renal disease. However, how to actually collect those benefits is a different story. You never know what you’re going to get when you book a bed and breakfast.
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Viral Hepatitis Definition And Overview
Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver. Many illnesses and conditions can cause inflammation of the liver, for example, drugs, alcohol, chemicals, and autoimmune diseases. Many viruses, for example, the virus causing mononucleosis and the cytomegalovirus, can inflame the liver. Most viruses, however, do not attack primarily the liver the liver is just one of several organs that the viruses affect. When most doctors speak of viral hepatitis, they are using the definition that means hepatitis caused by a few specific viruses that primarily attack the liver and are responsible for about half of all human hepatitis. There are several hepatitis viruses they have been named types A, B, C, D, E, F , and G. As our knowledge of hepatitis viruses grows, it is likely that this alphabetical list will become longer. The most common hepatitis viruses are types A, B, and C. Reference to the hepatitis viruses often occurs in an abbreviated form The focus of this article is on these viruses that cause the majority of human viral hepatitis.
Hepatitis viruses replicate primarily in the liver cells. This can cause the liver to be unable to perform its functions. The following is a list of major functions of the liver:
How To Protect Yourself Against Hepatitis B
Dr. Fried emphasizes that hepatitis B infection can be prevented by avoiding risky behaviors involving sex and drugs and by getting vaccinated. The hepatitis B vaccination is required for infants at birth, and subsequent vaccinations for adults are also important. There are separate vaccines for hepatitis A and B, but there is also a combination A and B vaccine so you can take care of both types at once. In North Carolina, newborn vaccinations have been required since 1994. Anyone born before this year should talk to their health care provider about being vaccinated for hepatitis B.
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Is Everyone Tested For Both Hepatitis B And C
The US Centers for Disease and Control recommends testing for certain high-risk groups for hepatitis B.
- High-risk groups include people not born in the US, men who have sex with men, people who inject drugs, and people with hepatitis C, among other groups.
- If you think you have been exposed to hepatitis B, contact your doctor right away. A treatment is available that may reduce your risk of infection if you receive this medicine within 24 hours of exposure to the virus.
The CDC recommends that all adults 18 years and older be tested for hepatitis C at least once. Pregnant women should be tested during each pregnancy. Getting tested for hepatitis C is important, because HCV treatments can cure most people in 8 to 12 weeks. If you are at higher risk for HCV, youll need to be tested more frequently.
Treatments for both hepatitis B and hepatitis C are in a class called antivirals, but the medications that are used are different.
How Is Hepatitis Contracted
Hepatitis A is most commonly transmitted via the fecal-oral route. You can contract hepatitis A by either ingesting contaminated water or food, or by person-to-person contactespecially if the other person has been handling contaminated foods and has not washed their hands effectively, said Zappas, who cites raw or undercooked seafood from contaminated water sources and raw produce as common contaminants. Additionally, she said, hepatitis A may in rare cases be transmitted sexually, in relation to fecal-oral contact.
Hepatitis B can be transmitted perinatally or via sexual contact. It can be contracted through contact with a number of bodily fluids including blood, semen, vaginal secretions, breast milk and more. Hepatitis C is also commonly transmitted via IV drug use, sexual or household contact. It can be contracted by having unprotected sex with an infected partner, through sharing needles, syringes or razor blades, or perinatallyfrom an infected pregnant woman to her child, Zappas said.
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What Is The Most Common Strain Of Hepatitis And Who Is Most At Risk Of Contracting It
Hepatitis C is the most common strain, with 71 million peopleworldwide suffering from chronic cases. According to Zappas, some 75 percentof people with hepatitis C in the U.S. are baby boomers, born between 1945 and 1965. Additionally, patients with HIV are at higher risk of contracting hepatitis C, the infection occurring in nearly 25 percent of patients who are HIV-positive, and up to 90 percent of HIV-positive injection drug users.
Hepatitis B may be more prevalent among certain demographics, such as in Asian/Pacific Islander populations, Zappas said. Those who engage in regular physical or sexual contact with an infected patient are at higher risk of contracting the infection themselves, since both hepatitis B and C are transmitted via blood and bodily fluids.
Difference Between Hepatitis A And B
Key difference: Hepatitis is a disease caused by various viruses. It mainly causes inflammation of the liver and is characterized by the presence of inflammatory cells in the tissue of the liver. The condition may be self-limiting, which means that it heals on its own over time or it may lead to fibrosis, i.e. scarring of the liver and cirrhosis. There are five different viruses that cause hepatitis: hepatitis A virus , hepatitis B virus , hepatitis C virus , hepatitis D virus and hepatitis E virus . However, hepatitis can also be caused by toxic substances, such as alcohol, certain medications, some industrial organic solvents, plants, other infections and autoimmune diseases.
Hepatitis is a disease caused by various viruses. It mainly causes inflammation of the liver and is characterized by the presence of inflammatory cells in the tissue of the liver. The condition may be self-limiting, which means that it heals on its own over time or it may lead to fibrosis, i.e. scarring of the liver and cirrhosis.
People with hepatitis may or may show symptoms, in fact majority of the affected show limited or no symptoms. However, in those that do show symptoms, the common symptoms can include jaundice, anorexia, loss of appetite, malaise, abdominal pain, nausea, fever, diarrhea, fatigue, etc.
A detailed comparison of Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B:
Image Courtesy: healthlob.com, hepatit.com
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How Do You Get Hepatitis B
In the U.S., people usually get hepatitis B infection through sexual transmission or intravenous drug use. In other parts of the world where hepatitis B is more common, such as Southeast Asia, mother-to-child transmission at birth is the most common way people get infected. Unlike hepatitis A infection, hepatitis B has the potential to become a chronic infection that requires lifelong management.
The Need For Vaccination
To prevent the contraction or development of hepatitis A, the following individuals should be sure to get vaccinated:
- 1 to 2-year-old children
- Men who have sexual contact with other men
- People who use drugs on the streets
- Employees working in various parts of the world, except countries such as Canada, the U.S., and Japan
- People who have personal or close contact with persons who come from HAV-infected countries
- People with chronic liver disease
- People experiencing homelessness
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What Are The Symptoms And Signs Of Viral Hepatitis
The period of time between exposure to hepatitis and the onset of the illness is called the incubation period. The incubation period varies depending on the specific hepatitis virus. Hepatitis A virus has an incubation period of about 15 to 45 days Hepatitis B virus from 45 to 160 days, and Hepatitis C virus from about 2 weeks to 6 months.
Many patients infected with HAV, HBV, and HCV have few or no symptoms of illness. For those who do develop symptoms of viral hepatitis, the most common are flu-like symptoms including:
What Is The Treatment For Viral Hepatitis
Treatment of acute viral hepatitis and chronic viral hepatitis are different. Treatment of acute viral hepatitis involves resting, relieving symptoms, and maintaining an adequate intake of fluids. Treatment of chronic viral hepatitis involves medications to eradicate the virus and taking measures to prevent further liver damage.
In patients with acute viral hepatitis, the initial treatment consists of relieving the symptoms of nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain . Careful attention should be given to medications or compounds, which can have adverse effects in patients with abnormal liver function . Only those medications that are considered necessary should be administered since the impaired liver is not able to eliminate drugs normally, and drugs may accumulate in the blood and reach toxic levels. Moreover, sedatives and “tranquilizers” are avoided because they may accentuate the effects of liver failure on the brain and cause lethargy and coma. The patient must abstain from drinking alcohol since alcohol is toxic to the liver. It occasionally is necessary to provide intravenous fluids to prevent dehydration caused by vomiting. Patients with severe nausea and/or vomiting may need to be hospitalized for treatment and intravenous fluids.
Medications for chronic hepatitis C infection include:
- oral daclatasvir
Medications for chronic hepatitis B infection include:
- oral entecavir
- oral tenofovir
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What Are The Common Types Of Viral Hepatitis
Although the most common types of viral hepatitis are HAV, HBV, and HCV, some clinicians had previously considered the acute and chronic phases of hepatic infections as “types” of viral hepatitis. HAV was considered to be acute viral hepatitis because the HAV infections seldom caused permanent liver damage that led to hepatic failure. HBV and HCV produced chronic viral hepatitis. However, these terms are outdated and not currently used as frequently because all of the viruses that cause hepatitis may have acute phase symptoms . Prevention techniques and vaccinations have markedly reduced the current incidence of common viral hepatitis infections however, there remains a population of about 1 to 2 million people in the U.S. with chronic HBV, and about 3.5 million with chronic HCV according to the CDC. Statistics are incomplete for determining how many new infections occur each year the CDC documented infections but then goes on to estimate the actual numbers by further estimating the number of unreported infections .
Types D, E, and G Hepatitis
Individuals who already have chronic HBV infection can acquire HDV infection at the same time as they acquire the HBV infection, or at a later time. Those with chronic hepatitis due to HBV and HDV develop cirrhosis rapidly. Moreover, the combination of HDV and HBV virus infection is very difficult to treat.
How To Protect Yourself Against Hepatitis C
Unfortunately, there is no vaccine available for hepatitis C, but you can protect yourself by avoiding behaviors such as sharing needles and syringes. In addition, the CDC recommends people born between 1945 and 1965 get tested for hepatitis C. Testing is also recommended for people who were treated for blood-clotting problems before 1987 and recipients of blood transfusions or donated organs before 1992.
The UNC Liver Center has a clinic in Chapel Hill that specializes in hepatitis B and C, incorporating the latest clinical trials and most up-to-date therapies. Treatment for hepatitis is also available at our locations in Asheville, High Point, Raleigh and Wilmington. To learn more, call 966-2516.
Michael Fried, MD, is the director of the UNC Liver Center and a professor of medicine at the UNC School of Medicine.
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