Evaluation Purpose And Scope
This evaluation was conducted to support program planning and decision making. It covered PHACs viral hepatitis and STI activities for the period of 2013-14 to 2017-18. These activities represented an annual investment of approximately $12 million.
The purpose of the evaluation was to assess the overall relevance and performance associated with PHACs viral hepatitis and STI activities. The evaluation focused on PHAC activities as they relate to STI, such as chlamydia, genital herpes, gonorrhoea, syphilis, human papilloma virus , as well as viral hepatitis, a group of diseases of the liver, which include hepatitis B and hepatitis C that can be transmitted sexually or through blood. The term sexually transmitted and blood-borne infections is often used to refer to all infections which can be transmitted sexually or through blood.Endnote 1
Human immunodeficiency virus is also an STBBI, but this evaluation did not assess PHAC activities falling under the Federal Initiative to Address HIV/AIDS in Canada. These activities were assessed in a separate horizontal evaluation conducted concurrently with this one.
Can Hcv Pass On Through Sex
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report that HCV can pass on through sex but that this is an uncommon route of transmission. The older review, from 2004, suggests that 5% of HCV cases are sexually transmitted.
The chance of HCV transmitting through sex increases if a person has multiple partners, has a sexually transmitted infection, or engages in sexual behavior that exposes someone to blood. Men who have sex with men may be more likely to contract HCV through sex, the CDC suggest.
Achievement Of Expected Outcomes
PHACs activities have contributed to the creation and uptake of STBBI-related knowledge products. PHAC has developed and shared a variety of products, such as surveillance information, peer-reviewed journal articles, and guidance on STI.
While there has been considerable work done to generate, share and support the application of knowledge, there are opportunities to further the application of STBBI knowledge products, such as guidelines, through enhanced outreach efforts. While PHAC knowledge products are well known and used by professionals in the field of sexual health, awareness of these products is low among general and family practitioners.
PHACs activities have contributed to increasing the capacity and skills of audiences and populations to prevent and control viral hepatitis and STI. For example, NML has provided reliable testing services to enhance the capacity of regional, provincial, and territorial public health services through genotyping or serological testing for diseases such as gonorrhea, chlamydia, HPV, and herpes. Frontline health care workers are using information produced through PHAC-funded activities in their work. More precisely, they used information to educate or inform clients, colleagues, and members of the public, and to improve their own work practices.
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Can You Pass Hepatitis C To A Sex Partner
Sex and Sexuality
Yes, but it is not likely. Compared to hepatitis B virus and the human immunodeficiency virus , it is less likely that you will spread the hepatitis C virus to your sex partner.
If you have one long-term sex partner, and one of you has hepatitis C and one of you does not, you do not need to change your sex habits at all. But, if either you or your partner is worried about the small chance of spreading the hepatitis C virus, you can use latex condoms. This will make it almost impossible to spread the virus. Long-term partners of people with hepatitis C should get tested for the virus. If the test is negative, you will probably not need to repeat it.
If you have more than one sex partner, you are more likely to spread the virus. In this case, reduce the number of sex partners you have, practice safer sex, and always use latex condoms.
There have been outbreaks of sexually transmitted HCV infection among men who have HIV and who have sex with men. It is recommended that men who have sex with men use condoms to reduce the risk of sexually transmitted HCV and other sexually transmitted infections.
Is Hepatitis Testing Recommended For People With Hiv
Yes. Everyone living with HIV should be tested for HBV and HCV when they are first diagnosed with HIV and begin treatment. People living with HIV who have ongoing risk factors for getting hepatitis B or hepatitis C should be tested annually.
In addition, new HCV screening recommendations from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention call for:
- One-time screening for all adults 18 years and older
- Screening of all pregnant women during every pregnancy
- Testing for all persons with risk factors, with testing continued periodic testing those with ongoing risk.
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Hepatitis A And B Immunization In Persons Being Evaluated For Sexually Transmitted Diseases
- H. Hunter HandsfieldCorrespondenceAddress correspondence to H. Hunter Handsfield, MD, Harborview Medical Center, Box 359777, 325 Ninth Avenue, Seattle, Washington 98106.AffiliationsCenter for AIDS and STD, University of Washington, and the Department of Medicine, Harborview Medical Center, Seattle, Washington, USA.
Hepatitis C And Safe Sex
As with hepatitis B, the time to tell any sexual partner about your diagnosis is before you have sex or if you have already had sex, before you have sex again. Again, if you are having sex you need to use condoms and avoid risky sexual activity.
“In patients with hepatitis C in stable monogamous relationships, the rate of transmission appears to be in the range of 2 to 4 percent per year,” says Fallon.
Even though the chance of transmitting hepatitis C is lower if you are having sex with only one partner, you still need to be responsible and cautious. “Since there is no effective vaccine prevention is of particular importance in this group,” warns Fallon. Using condoms will decrease the risk of transmitting your hepatitis C infection to your partner.
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Who Is At Risk
Anyone who has not been vaccinated or previously infected can get infected with the hepatitis A virus. In areas where the virus is widespread , most hepatitis A infections occur during early childhood. Risk factors include:
- poor sanitation
- living in a household with an infected person
- being a sexual partner of someone with acute hepatitis A infection
- use of recreational drugs
- travelling to areas of high endemicity without being immunized.
What Is Hepatitis C
The term hepatitis means an inflammation of the liver. The inflammation may damage the liver, which is the largest internal organ in the body. The liver filters the blood and breaks down harmful substances.
Infection with a virus is the most common cause of hepatitis. If a person contracts HCV, the disease is called hepatitis C, or hep C for short.
Hepatitis A and hepatitis B are other types of hepatitis that result from viral infection. Hepatitis A, B, and C differ in the way they spread, their effect on the liver, and their method of treatment, according to the
HCV causes hepatitis C. A person may contract HCV by coming into contact with the blood of someone else who has the condition. Even microscopic amounts of blood may be enough to spread the virus.
In the United States, the way for someone to contract hepatitis C is by sharing drug-injection equipment, such as needles or syringes.
According to the , other ways a person may contract hepatitis C include:
- coming into contact with the open sores or blood of a person with the condition
- using the toothbrush, nail clippers, or razor of a person with the condition
- getting a tattoo or piercing with non-sterile instruments or inks
- getting an accidental stick with a needle from someone with hepatitis C
About 6% of babies born to people with hepatitis C will develop hepatitis C.
Sometimes an individual will experience symptoms 13 months after contracting HCV, according to
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Hepatitis A And Safe Sex
Hepatitis A is most often contracted through eating or drinking something that has been contaminated with the feces of an infected person. Contact with feces of an infected person through sexual activity, including anal sex or oral-anal activity, can result in the spread of hepatitis A to a sexual partner. Even a condom may not be protective, because handling a contaminated condom may lead to spread of the virus onto hands and into the mouth.
Sexually Transmitted Infections In The Western Pacific
There were an estimated 108 million new cases of one of four curable sexually transmitted infections in the Region in 2018. STIs can have serious reproductive health consequences, including infertility, mother-to-child transmission, adverse birth outcomes including stillbirths and newborn deaths, increased risk of HIV acquisition, and cancer.
STIs are spread predominantly by sexual contact, including vaginal, anal and oral sex. Some STIs can also be spread through non-sexual means such as via blood or blood products, as well as from mother to child during pregnancy and childbirth. Common symptoms of STIs include vaginal discharge, urethral discharge or burning in men, genital ulcers, and abdominal pain. However, the majority of STIs have no symptoms or only mild symptoms.
Of the eight most common STIs, four are currently curable: syphilis, gonorrhoea, chlamydia and trichomoniasis. The other four infections are caused by viruses and cannot be cured: hepatitis B, herpes simplex virus , HIV, and human papillomavirus . Symptoms or disease due to these viral infections can be reduced or modified through treatment.
When used correctly and consistently, condoms are one of the most effective methods of protection against STIs and HIV. Early diagnosis of STIs, among people with or without symptoms, offers the best opportunity for effective medical treatment and support, and for preventing further transmission.
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Sharing Personal Care Items
The chances of spreading hepatitis C within your household are low but possible. To be safe, don’t share personal care items that could be contaminated with blood, Lee says. These include razors, toothbrushes, cuticle scissors, and nail clippers.
In addition, be mindful when you go to nail salons or barbershops, where the same tools are used on all customers. A study published in the November-December 2014 issue of the Journal of Public Health Management & Practice found that while regulations to safeguard the public exist in most states, it’s unknown how many businesses comply with them. Ask about tool-sterilization procedures before you frequent these establishments. You can also bring your own nail care supplies.
Limitations And Mitigation Strategies
Most evaluations face constraints that may affect the validity and reliability of findings and conclusions. The following table outlines the limitations encountered during the implementation of the selected methods for this evaluation. Also noted are the mitigation strategies put in place to ensure that the evaluation findings can be used with confidence to guide program planning and decision making.
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Parenteral Routes: Transmission Of Hepatitis B Hepatitis D And Hepatitis C
Hepatitis B, C, and D viruses are all transmitted by what is known as the parenteral route. Parenteral simply means that these viruses can be introduced by all routes except through the intestinal tract, which leaves the door wide open in terms of possible exposure. Let’s look at the possible transmission routes for each of these types of hepatitis virus more closely.
Which Hepatitis Is An Std
Hepatitis A, B, and C can be sexually transmitted.
- Hepatitis A: Although the fecal-oral route is common for hepatitis A, the virus can also be transmitted from any sexual activity. The use of condoms does not effectively prevent the spread of hepatitis A.
- Hepatitis B: Sexual contact is the most common mode of Hepatitis B transmission in the United States. Compared to HIV, a hepatitis B infection is 50 to 100 times more likely to be transmitted sexually. The transmission risk is higher among unvaccinated people with risk behaviors like having multiple sex partners and men having sex with men .
- Hepatitis C: The Hepatitis C virus may be transmitted via sexual contact. However, studies have shown that such transmission is very rare. A higher rate of sexual transmission of the hepatitis C infection is seen in MSM, especially those who practice unprotected anal intercourse and have an infection with the human immunodeficiency virus .
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Hepatitis B And Safe Sex
“All three forms of viral hepatitis may be transmitted sexually, although hepatitis B is most commonly transmitted sexually,” explains Michael B. Fallon, MD, professor of medicine at The University of Texas Medical School in Houston. Once you have been diagnosed with hepatitis B, you should tell your partner so he or she can be tested. If your partner does not have hepatitis B, and is not already immune to hepatitis B, a vaccine is recommended.
“Sexual partners of individuals with hepatitis B should consider vaccination to prevent acquiring infections,” says Fallon. Hepatitis B immune globulin which works like an antibody, quickly fighting infection can also be given to a partner who has been exposed to your body fluids within two weeks after exposure to prevent infection. Even after your partner has been vaccinated, you should always use a condom.
Hepatitis And Sex: Frequently Asked Questions
Itâs widely known that viral hepatitis can spread through consuming contaminated food or sharing dirty hypodermic needles. But the liver-destroying disease can also sometimes be spread through sexual contact. Hereâs what you need to know to protect yourself.
How many kinds of viral hepatitis are there?
Can all types be spread by sexual contact?
Hepatitis A spreads via fecal-oral contact, which can occur if there is direct oral-anal contact or contact with fingers or objects that have been in or near the anus of an infected person. If even a microscopic amount of virus-laden feces gets into the mouth, infection potentially can result.
Are men and women equally at risk of getting and spreading hepatitis through sex?
The risk is determined by a personâs behavior, not their gender, although some studies have shown that it is easier for a man to transmit HCV to a woman than vice versa.
Men who have sex with men are 10 to 15 times more likely than the general population to be infected with hepatitis B.
How can I make sure my partner is free of hepatitis before we have sex?
Are some sex acts especially likely to transmit hepatitis?
Any sexual activity that might cause abrasions, cuts, or other trauma is especially risky.
Is it possible to catch hepatitis from kissing?
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What Can You Catch From A Public Toilet Seat
Some viral and parasitic STIs can live outside of your body for a limited period of time. Theoretically, they may be transmitted from contact with a toilet seat.
There are, however, potential exceptions to this rule:
- In some rare instances, a damp toilet seat can spread trichomoniasis. But for this to happen, it would need to be freshly deposited, plus come into immediate contact with your genital region.
- Hepatitis B might enter your body from a toilet seat through freshly deposited blood or semen. But for transmission to occur, an open wound would need to come into contact with the virus.
There are different types of STIs. Transmission can vary between each type.
All STIs can be transmitted through various forms of sexual activity, including:
- skin-to-skin contact
- genital-to-genital contact
- oral-genital contact
Skin-to-skin contact can occur when secretions like semen or saliva are shared skin to skin. There dont need to be any open sores present. STIs that are commonly transmitted this way include:
Is Hepatitis C Sexually Transmitted
Can hepatitis C be spread through sexual contact?
Hepatitis C is a contagious liver disease caused by the hepatitis C virus . The disease can be passed from person to person.
As with many infections, HCV lives in blood and bodily fluids. You can contract hepatitis C by coming into direct contact with an infected persons blood. It can also be transmitted by contact with bodily fluids including saliva or semen of an infected person, but this is rare.
Researchers in found that 1 out of every 190,000 instances of heterosexual sexual contact led to HCV transmission. Participants in the study were in monogamous sexual relationships.
HCV may be more likely to spread through sexual contact if you:
- have multiple sexual partners
- participate in rough sex, which is more likely to result in broken skin or bleeding
- dont use barrier protection, such as condoms or dental dams
- dont use barrier protection properly
- have a sexually transmitted infection or HIV
Theres no evidence that HCV can be spread through oral sex. However, it may still be possible if blood is present from either the person giving or receiving oral sex.
For example, a slight risk may exist if any of the following are present:
- menstrual blood
- genital warts
- any other breaks in the skin in the involved areas
Though sexual transmission is rare overall, HCV may be more likely to spread through anal sex than oral sex. This is because rectal tissue is more likely to tear during intercourse.
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Description Of The Outbreak
A case of hepatitis A was defined as any person aged 18years or more, with a positive detection of anti-hepatitis A virus IgM antibodies from December 2016 to December 2017, in Seine-Maritime department. Cases were subsequently classified according to isolation or not of European outbreak strains as 1) confirmed outbreak case if genotype IA was isolated whether or not the genetic sequence was available , 2) possible outbreak case if no further information on genotyping was available, 3) unrelated case if another genotype than genotype IA was identified.
Since 2005, HAV surveillance relies on a mandatory notification by clinicians and laboratories . At case notification, the public health nurse from the regional health directorate collects details on possible source of contamination and closed contacts using a standard questionnaire. Information on sexual exposure is not collected in routine. Cases receive counselling on good personal hygiene. Vaccination of contact is usually recommended.
The National Hepatitis A Reference laboratory performed genotyping as previously described . Analysis were performed each month on a subset of sera due to the flow of request received by the reference laboratory.