Sunday, May 22, 2022

Antiviral Drugs For Hepatitis A

Helpful Tips While Taking Hepatitis C Medications

Pharmacology 879 a AntiViral Drugs Viral Classification Non RetroVirus Herpes Influenza Hepatitis
  • Always follow your health care providers’ advice, particularly the instructions on taking your medicine.
  • If you have to cancel an appointment, call your provider and schedule a new one as soon as possible.
  • Take good care of yourself. Eat well, drink 8 to 10 glasses of water each day, and try to get a full night’s sleep.
  • Learn about the hepatitis C medications you are taking. This includes special risks and warnings.
  • If taking ribavirin, use sunscreen, wear long sleeves and a hat, and limit sun exposure.
  • Write down your doctor’s name and phone number. Carry this information with you at all times.
  • Write the names and amounts of the medicines you are taking. Carry this information with you at all times.

Treatment For Hepatitis B

All cases of begin as an acute and most cases resolve without treatment. However, if the person does not recover completely within 6 months, the infection is considered chronic. Clients diagnosed with B should get regular monitoring by a medical care provider, and some might undertake treatment. Several medications are used for chronic hepatitis B. Treatment might be started with any of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration -approved antiviral medications, but , , or are preferred . These medications might be prescribed individually or in combination .

Medications for Chronic Hepatitis B.

Any treatment for has benefits and risks. Antiviral treatment generally lasts 6 months1 year and can extend for years longer . Managing side effects can be difficult. The decision to undertake treatment should not be made in haste because ending some antiviral medications early can reactivate the HBV . Many people elect to delay hepatitis B treatment until they are better able to adhere to it. provides counseling tips for addressing clients concerns about hepatitis B.

Counseling Tips for Addressing Concerns About Chronic Hepatitis B. Help clients understand that although their symptoms might have diminished, they remain infected. Explain, I know you feel better now, but remember that you still have the infection

Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors

  • This antiretroviral drug was the first class of drug developed to treat HIV infections. This competes with the naturally occurring nucleosides within a human cell that the virus would need to develop.

Therapeutic Action

The desired and beneficial action of this antiretroviral drug is:

  • Competing with the naturally occurring nucleosides within the cell that the virus would use to build DNA chain. These nucleosides, however, lack a substance needed to extend the DNA chain. Consequently, chain cannot lengthen and insert itself into the host DNA.


NRTIs are indicated for the following medical conditions:

  • Combination therapy for the treatment of adults and children with HIV
  • Lamivudine as an oral solution can be used in treatment of chronic hepatitis B
  • Zidovudine is used in prevention of maternal transmission of HIV.


Here are the characteristic interactions of nonnucleoside NRTIs and the body in terms of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion:


Contraindications and Cautions

The following are contraindications and cautions for the use of NRTIs:

  • Pregnancy. No adequate studies of NRTIs so use should be limited, except for zidovudine, which has been proven to be safe.
  • Hepatic dysfunction, severe renal impairment. Caution with use of tenofovir, zidovudine, and emtricitabine.
  • Bone marrow suppression. Can be aggravated by zidovudine.

Adverse Effects

Use of NRTIs may result to these adverse effects:


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Is There A Cure

Though there is no vaccine for Hepatitis C, treatments can reduce the viral load to undetectable levels which is considered cured or in remission.

The virus is considered cured when it is not detected in your blood 12 weeks after treatment is completed. This is otherwise known as a sustained virologic response .

Hepatitis C is one of the most serious hepatitis viruses. However, with newer treatments developed over the past few years, the virus is much more manageable than it was in the past.

Current antiviral drugs that help cure hepatitis C may also help prevent the health complications of chronic liver disease.

The reports less than half of people who contract the hepatitis C virus may clear it from their bodies without treatment. For this group of people, the virus will be a short-term acute condition that goes away without treatment.

But for most people, acute hepatitis C will likely develop into a chronic condition that requires treatment.

Since the virus often doesnt produce symptoms until after more significant liver damage occurs, its important to get tested for hepatitis C if you think you might have been exposed.

approved the antiviral drug Mavyret for an 8-week treatment period for people with all genotypes of hepatitis C.

This treatment is now being used for many people instead of the 12-week treatment that was previously required.

Noninvasive ways to test for liver damage caused by hepatitis C are also now available to aid in diagnosis.

Disease Spotlight: Viral Diseases

Contemporary Management of Hepatitis C in Patients with ...
  • Viruses are composed of a single DNA or RNA inside a protein coat. Viruses must enter a cell in order for them to carry on with their metabolic processes.
  • Upon successful entry, viruses inject their DNA or RNA to the cell and the cell is altered in such a manner that it is now programmed to control the metabolic processes that the virus needs to survive.
  • Because viruses are contained in the cells, researchers find it difficult to develop vaccines. However, viruses respond to some antiviral therapy including influenza A viruses, herpes viruses, CMV, HIV, hepatitis B and C viruses, and some viruses that cause warts and eye infections.

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Are There Ways To Cure Hepatitis C Other Than With Medications

Patients sometimes ask whether there are ways to treat hepatitis C other than taking medicines. Currently, there are no vaccines to prevent hepatitis C. Once a person is infected, the only way to treat it is with prescribed antiviral medications.

Some patients worry that having hepatitis C means they will need a liver transplant. Only a very small fraction of people with hepatitis C require a liver transplant. By far, most people with hepatitis C never need a liver transplant. A transplant is performedonlywhen damage to the liver is extremely advanced and the liver is unable to perform its basic functions. A transplant provides a new working liver, but a transplant does not get rid of the hepatitis C virus in the patient. Patients with a liver transplant still need antiviral medication to cure their virus.

Which Vaccine Preparation Or Treatment Stands Out As Contributing In A Major Way In The Prevention And Control For Health Care


Influenza vaccination is the most effective means of protecting susceptible individuals and decreasing viral transmission within health care institutions. In the limited number of direct comparisons between the trivalent inactivated vaccine and the live-attenuated influenza vaccine preparations, there is no apparent difference in protective efficacy in healthy young adults. In healthy infants and young children , however, current data suggest the LAIV is more effective than TIV.


Palivizumab is most the significant advancement to date in RSV pharmacotherapy. The primary benefit of palivizumab immunoprophylaxis is a decrease in the rate of RSV-associated hospitalization in patients at highest risk for severe RSV infection.


The hepatitis B vaccine stands apart as the most significant contributor to the prevention and control of health care associated hepatitis infections over the last two decades. Before the widespread vaccination of health care workers, the prevalence of hepatitis B markers in this group was two- to three-fold higher than in the general population. Institution of a comprehensive immunization strategy to eliminate hepatitis B transmission, which included required vaccination of health care workers, was highly successful in reducing HBV infection rates with a 95% decline in the incidence of hepatitis B infection among health care workers from 1983 to 1995.


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What Does It Mean To Have A Successful Treatment What Is A Sustained Virologic Response

In an untreated state, the hepatitis C virus infects the cells of the liver and then continuously lives there, making copies of itself that circulate in the bloodstream. Antiviral medications can destroy the ability of the virus to reproduce, so the amount of virus in the bloodstream then decreases. The amount of virus in the blood is measured by aviral load.

Treatment is successful when the viral load drops toundetectablelevels, which means the virus cannot be detected in the bloodstream at all. The viral load becomes undetectable during treatment and remains undetected after treatment has ended. If there is still no detectable virus in the blood 12 weeks after the end of the treatment, the treatment was successful. This is called a Sustained Virologic Response .

A patient who has achieved an SVR is considered to be cured of the hepatitis C virus.

Approaches By Virus Life Cycle Stage


Viruses consist of a genome and sometimes a few enzymes stored in a capsule made of protein , and sometimes covered with a lipid layer . Viruses cannot reproduce on their own and instead propagate by subjugating a host cell to produce copies of themselves, thus producing the next generation.

Researchers working on such “rational drug design” strategies for developing antivirals have tried to attack viruses at every stage of their life cycles. Some species of mushrooms have been found to contain multiple antiviral chemicals with similar synergistic effects.Compounds isolated from fruiting bodies and filtrates of various mushrooms have broad-spectrum antiviral activities, but successful production and availability of such compounds as frontline antiviral is a long way away. Viral life cycles vary in their precise details depending on the type of virus, but they all share a general pattern:

  • Attachment to a host cell.
  • Release of viral genes and possibly enzymes into the host cell.
  • Replication of viral components using host-cell machinery.
  • Assembly of viral components into complete viral particles.
  • Release of viral particles to infect new host cells.
  • Before cell entry

    This stage of viral replication can be inhibited in two ways:

  • Using agents which mimic the virus-associated protein and bind to the cellular receptors. This may include VAP anti-idiotypicantibodies, natural ligands of the receptor and anti-receptor antibodies.
  • Uncoating inhibitor

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    Nursing Considerations For Antiretroviral Drugs

    Here are important nursing considerations when administering antiretroviral drugs:

    Nursing Assessment

    These are the important things the nurse should include in conducting assessment, history taking, and examination:

    • Assess for the mentioned cautions and contraindications to prevent any untoward complications.
    • Perform a thorough physical assessment to establish baseline data before drug therapy begins, to determine effectiveness of therapy, and to evaluate for occurrence of any adverse effects associated with drug therapy.
    • Evaluate hepatic and renal function tests to determine baseline function of the kidneys and liver.
    • Check results of CBC with differential to monitor bone marrow activity and helper T cell number to determine the severity of the disease and indicate the effectiveness of the drugs.

    Nursing Diagnoses

    Here are some of the nursing diagnoses that can be formulated in the use of these drugs for therapy:

    • Acute pain related to GI, CNS, or dermatological effects of the drug
    • Disturbed sensory perception related to CNS effects of the drug
    • Imbalanced nutrition: less than body requirements related to GI effects of the drug

    Implementation with Rationale

    These are vital nursing interventions done in patients who are taking antiretroviral drugs:


    Here are aspects of care that should be evaluated to determine effectiveness of drug therapy:

    Complementary Or Alternative Medicine

    Clients might turn to complementary or alternative medicine , believing it will bolster nutrition, attack the , protect or strengthen the liver, or mitigate side effects of viral hepatitis treatment. As many as 20 percent of people who have liver disease use herbal remedies. No conclusive scientific evidence supports the use of CAM for herbal treatments, dietary supplements, alternative medicines, and acupuncture have not been proven to cure or relieve symptoms of hepatitis C . In addition, some herbal treatments might harm the liver, further damaging an already compromised organ. Plants and alternative treatments that can harm the liver are provided in .

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    How Is Hepatitis C Treated

    Hepatitis C virus is treated with all-oral medications. These pills, calledantiviral medications, are usually taken once per day. These antiviral medications are extremely good at attacking the virus and preventing it from multiplying.

    Antiviral medications were not the original treatment for hepatitis C. Before 2014, the only treatment for hepatitis C was called interferon and ribavirin, taken as weekly injections under the skin, plus pills. Interferon treatment caused many unpleasant side effects and was not usually successful. Then a new generation of medications became available. These antiviral treatments are extremely successful at curing the virus and have very minimal side effects.

    Ribavirin is still sometimes prescribed to be taken along with the new antiviral medicines, but it has become more and more uncommon that ribavirin is needed at all. Ribavirin has some mild-moderate side effects. Ribavirin is a pill taken twice per day, as 2 or 3 pills in the morning plus 2 or 3 pills at night, depending on the patient’s body weight. Most patients do not need ribavirin.

    Treatment For Chronic Hepatitis B

    Hepatitis C: Antiviral Drug Discovery and Development ...

    If blood tests show that you still have hepatitis B after 6 months, your doctor may recommend medication to reduce the risk of complications of hepatitis B and regular tests to assess the health of your liver.

    Treatment is usually offered if:

    • your immune system is unable to control the hepatitis B by itself
    • there’s evidence of ongoing liver damage

    Hepatitis B medications can help keep the virus under control and stop it damaging your liver, although they will not necessarily cure the infection and some people need lifelong treatment.

    The main medicines for chronic hepatitis B include peginterferon alfa 2-a and antiviral medicines.

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    Virus Titration And Immunostaining

    Virus titration and immunostaining were performed as described previously . HCV JFH1 was cultivated in Huh7it-1 cells, which were then visualized through immunostaining. The culture supernatant from anti-HCV assay was dilluted 20-fold with medium then inoculated onto cell. Four hours after virus absorption, the remaining virus was removed, and cells were incubated with a medium containing 0.4% methylcellulose for 40h. The immunostaining was performed to determine focus formation assay through the infectious foci. Firstly, Cells were fixed using 10% formaldehyde then washed 3x with PBS 200l/well. To permeable cell membrane, triton X 0.5% was added and the cells were incubated for 10min. HCV infected patient serum was used to stain HCV antigen-positive cells by combining them at a 1:200 ratio with a solution of BlockAce , BSA , PBS and incubated for 1 h. We continued by adding a HRP-goat anti-human Ig antibody at a ratio of 1:400 under the same conditions. The enzymatis reaction was identified through reacting HRP and metal enhanced DAB substrate which resulted brown color for infected cells. The infectious foci were counted under an inverted microscope.

    How Is It Spread

    Hepatitis A is spread when a person ingests fecal mattereven in microscopic amountsfrom contact with objects, food, or drinks contaminated by feces or stool from an infected person.

    Hepatitis B is primarily spread when blood, semen, or certain other body fluids- even in microscopic amounts from a person infected with the hepatitis B virus enters the body of someone who is not infected. The hepatitis B virus can also be transmitted from:

    • Birth to an infected mother
    • Sex with an infected person
    • Sharing equipment that has been contaminated with blood from an infected person, such as needles, syringes, and even medical equipment, such as glucose monitors
    • Sharing personal items such as toothbrushes or razors
    • Poor infection control has resulted in outbreaks in health care facilities

    Hepatitis C is spread when blood from a person infected with the Hepatitis C virus even in microscopic amounts enters the body of someone who is not infected. The hepatitis C virus can also be transmitted from:

    • Sharing equipment that has been contaminated with blood from an infected person, such as needles and syringes
    • Receiving a blood transfusion or organ transplant before 1992
    • Poor infection control has resulted in outbreaks in health care facilities
    • Birth to an infected mother

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    Pharmacology Of Antiviral Drugs

    Antiviral drugs are part of the broader family of antimicrobial drugs. a diverse and broad range of drugs with often complex mechanisms, Here, in this review, we study the key facts of antiviral drugs pharmacology that pharmacy students need to know.

    Most antiviral drugs have just one single target, whereas other antiviral drugs have a broad-spectrum of activity. One of the primary differences between antibacterial and antiviral drugs is how they act toward the target pathogen.

    For example, a great many antibacterial drugs are bactericidal namely, that they actively seek out, destroy and kill the target pathogen. The same cannot be said for antiviral drugs which instead inhibit viral growth.

    For this and other reasons, treating viral infections is more challenging than treating bacterial infections. Many bacterial infections can be treated quickly and effectively. Treatment is often more targeted and patient response more predictable.

    Nevertheless, a wide range of effective antiviral drugs have been developed. In the case of hepatitis C, for example, many new drugs such as sofosbuvir / ledipasvir have been developed with a cure rate greater than 95 percent.

    What Are The Names Of The Medications For Treating Hepatitis C

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    Since 2014, multiple different antiviral treatments for hepatitis C have been developed. With the many options now available, often there is more than one good choice for a patient. Some of the treatments are recommended as first-line options, some are second-line options, and others are used less commonly in light of all the available choices.

    • Elbasvir/Grazoprevir

    Second line hepatitis C medications:

    • Sofosbuvir/Velpatasvir/Voxelaprevir

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